In the United States, Hickham helped to spread the word. He had formerly been on the faculty at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, and returned there in 1960 to give a talk on the new technique of fluorescein angiography. He gave detailed instructions for the procedure to a senior neurologist, Albert Heyman, and to a younger protégé who was chief of neurology at a Veterans Administration hospital, Noble David. David was searching for academic identity at the time and latched onto the new procedure.30 He outfitted a Bausch & Lomb fundus camera with the proper filters and was soon taking angiograms with the help of the hospital photographer, Leonard Hart, and an eager young assistant named Johnny Justice.6 Working with Hart, David developed technology for taking photographs every 4 seconds, and he published the second set of fluorescein angiographic images in 1961.31 This was in a neurology article devoted mostly to angioscopy for the recognition of carotid insufficiency, and it referred to the published abstract24 of Novotny and Alvis's work for methodology. But no one else at Duke University seemed very interested in the technique. Two years later, J. Lawton Smith and Edward Norton convinced David to move to the new Bascom Palmer Eye Institute in Miami, Florida, and to bring his technology for fluorescein angiography. Not long after, Johnny Justice also moved to Miami to become the chief photographer. His high-quality images (and continued technological improvements) convinced Norton and his younger retina specialist J. Donald Gass (who was to become the leading scholar of macular disease in the latter part of the 20th century) of the enormous potential of the procedure. In 1964, the Miami group began a series of seminal papers32,33 that showed the broad and indisputable value of fluorescein angiography in the practical diagnosis of macular and retinovascular disease. It is not irrelevant to note that ophthalmic lasers were also developed in the 1960s, and the argon laser was being applied effectively to macular lesions by 1970.34,35 Fluorescein angiography provided a map for the photocoagulation of vascular lesions, and conversely the therapeutic benefits of the laser treatment inspired improvements and dissemination of angiographic equipment.