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Clinical Sciences |

Presumed Solitary Circumscribed Retinal Astrocytic Proliferation The 2010 Jonathan W. Wirtschafter Lecture FREE

Jerry A. Shields, MD; Carlos G. Bianciotto, MD; Tero Kivela, MD; Carol L. Shields, MD
[+] Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: Ocular Oncology Service, Wills Eye Institute, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Drs J. A. Shields, Bianciotto, and C. L. Shields); and Ocular Oncology Service, Department of Ophthalmology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland (Dr Kivela).


Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129(9):1189-1194. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.211.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Objective To report the clinical features and differential diagnosis of an unusual entity termed presumed solitary circumscribed retinal astrocytic proliferation (PSCRAP).

Methods Retrospective review of medical records.

Results All patients with PSCRAP were asymptomatic, and the lesion was found during routine examination. There were 5 men and 2 women with a median age of 53 years. No patient had a history or clinical findings of tuberous sclerosis complex. Each PSCRAP lesion was circumscribed, abruptly elevated, and opaque white to yellow and mostly obscured the underlying retinal vessels. The lesions had no associated subretinal fluid, hemorrhage, calcification, or retinal traction. Fluorescein angiography disclosed mild hyperfluorescence in the venous phase and moderate late staining of the lesions. Autofluorescence showed mild hyperautofluorescence of the lesions. Ultrasonography revealed no calcification. Optical coherence tomography showed an abruptly elevated retinal mass with optical shadowing posterior to the lesion. Six lesions were stable after a median follow-up of 6 years, and 1 lesion gradually disappeared. The pathogenesis and pathologic features of PSCRAP are unknown.

Conclusion Presumed solitary circumscribed retinal astrocytic proliferation appears to be a unique retinal lesion of adulthood that resembles astrocytic hamartoma or retinoblastoma but displays distinctive ophthalmoscopic features.

Figures in this Article

Retinal glial cells (astrocytes and Müller cells) can spawn nonneoplastic proliferations, known as gliosis. Gliosis can develop after a variety of retinal insults, including inflammation, hemorrhage, vitreous traction, retinal detachment, retinal vein obstruction, and others.13 Such reactive gliosis is generally small and rarely enters into the differential diagnosis of neoplasms. On occasion, however, reactive gliosis can be extensive and assume tumorous proportions, a condition called massive gliosis.13 True tumors of astrocytic derivation are uncommon and include astrocytic hamartoma of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and acquired retinal astrocytoma.3 We herein report the fundus findings in 7 patients each with a solitary white or yellow retinal mass that differs clinically from other retinal tumors and reactive gliosis. We have chosen the term presumed solitary circumscribed retinal astrocytic proliferation (PSCRAP) for this entity.

This study was approved by the institutional review board of Wills Eye Institute. We reviewed the medical records of 7 adult patients, each of whom had a small, well-circumscribed, white or yellow mass in the sensory retina that differed from astrocytic hamartoma and retinoblastoma. Patient age at presentation; sex; visual acuity; ocular symptoms; tumor characteristics, including the tumor base diameter in millimeters (estimated ophthalmoscopically) and tumor elevation (estimated by ultrasonography); and fundus location, color, and configuration were recorded. The detailed fundus drawings and photographs were scrutinized for subretinal fluid, exudation, vitreous seeding, hemorrhage, feeding retinal vessels, and retinal traction. Ocular imaging features were reviewed using fundus photography, intravenous fluorescein angiography (FA), autofluorescence (AF), and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Data were recorded at the initial examination and on follow-up visits.

All 7 patients were referred for a small asymptomatic fundus lesion found on routine examination that met our diagnostic criteria for PSCRAP as described in the “Methods” section. The examination results are given in Table 1. No patient had a history or signs of TSC or any associated ocular findings that seemed related to the fundus lesion.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 1. Clinical Findings in 7 Patients With Presumed Solitary Circumscribed Retinal Astrocytic Proliferation

The mean age at referral was 60 (median, 53; range, 37-85) years (Table 1). The lesion was located within 3 mm of the optic disc in 3 cases and in the equatorial region in 4 cases. No patients had symptoms related to the lesions, and visual acuity was 20/40 or better in all cases. The lesions ranged from 1 to 2 mm in diameter and 1 to 2 mm in thickness (Figure 1). They were opaque, usually preventing a clear view of retinal blood vessels; 5 were white and 2 were yellow. The adjacent retinal blood vessels traversed through or around the lesion, were not dilated or tortuous, and did not have the appearance of feeder vessels. There was no appreciable traction on the retinal blood vessels, suggesting the absence of adjacent gliosis. There was no ophthalmoscopic or ultrasonographic evidence of calcification in any case. Three of the patients had subtle proliferation of the retinal pigment epithelium adjacent to the lesion (Figure 1A, G, and H). On follow-up, 6 lesions remained stable and 1 spontaneously resolved within 1 year (Figure 1C and D).

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Graphic Jump Location

Figure 1. Ophthalmoscopic appearance of 7 patients with presumed solitary circumscribed retinal astrocytic proliferation. A, Case 1. B, Case 2. C, Case 3 when first detected. D, Case 3, 1 year later, showing that the lesion has resolved without treatment. E, Case 4. F, Case 5. G, Case 6. H, Case 7.

Fluorescein angiography generally showed mild hyperfluorescence of the lesions beginning in the venous phase and moderate, well-defined, late staining (Figure 2A and B). Autofluorescence revealed moderate hyperautofluorescence of the mass (Figure 2C). Ultrasonography showed a thin mass with no intrinsic calcification (Figure 2D). The OCT findings suggested that each lesion was located in the sensory retina with optical shadowing of deeper structures (Figure 2E-H).

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Graphic Jump Location

Figure 2. Representative imaging findings in patients with presumed solitary circumscribed retinal astrocytic proliferation. A, A fluorescein angiogram (FA) in the full venous phase shows minimal fluorescence of the lesion along the inferotemporal vascular arcade in case 2. B, An FA in recirculation phase shows moderate well-circumscribed fluorescence of the same lesion in case 2. C, Autofluorescence in case 6. D, B-scan ultrasonography in case 6. E, Optical coherence tomography (OCT) in case 4. F, OCT in case 5. G, OCT in case 2. H, OCT in case 7.

A brief history of each case is summarized in Table 1.

CASE 1

A 46-year-old man had an elevated, superficial, yellow retinal lesion near the equator temporally with mild hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium near its margin. It measured 2.0 mm in diameter and 1.8 mm thick (Figure 1A). After 14 years of observation, visual acuity and the tumor remained stable.

CASE 2

A 53-year-old man with bilateral optic disc drusen had a white retinal lesion with abrupt inferotemporal elevation in the left eye. The lesion obscured the underlying vessels and measured 1.5 mm in diameter and 1.7 mm thick (Figure 1B). Intravenous FA showed mild early hyperfluorescence in the late venous phase with intense late fluorescence (Figure 2A and B). Autofluorescence disclosed moderate hyperautofluorescence of the mass, and ultrasonography showed no calcification. When viewed with OCT, the lesion was abruptly elevated with optical shadowing (Figure 2G). The lesion was stable after 10 years of follow-up.

CASE 3

A 76-year-old woman had an opaque yellow retinal lesion located inferonasal to the optic disc, measuring 1.5 mm in diameter and 1.4 thick (Figure 1C). Intravenous FA disclosed a fine vascular pattern in the venous phase and diffuse late staining of the mass. The patient was followed up at 4-month intervals and the lesion gradually resolved. One year later, the lesion had resolved completely, leaving normal-appearing retina at the site (Figure 1D). This case was previously reported as spontaneous disappearance of astrocytic hyperplasia before our coining of the term PSCRAP.4

CASE 4

A 37-year-old man had a solitary opaque white juxtapapillary retinal lesion located superotemporal to the optic disc, measuring 1.0 mm in diameter and 1.0 thick (Figure 1E and Table 1). Findings of intravenous FA, AF, ultrasonography, and OCT (Figure 2E) were similar to those of the previous cases (Figure 2G). On follow-up 6 years later, visual acuity and the fundus lesion were stable.

CASE 5

An 85-year-old woman had an opaque white retinal lesion superior to the right optic disc, measuring 1.5 mm in diameter and 2.0 mm thick (Figure 1F). The ultrasonographic and OCT findings were similar to those of previous cases (Figure 2F). One year later, the lesion was unchanged.

CASE 6

A 43-year-old man had a white equatorial retinal lesion superior to the equator in the right eye, measuring 2.0 mm in diameter and 1.9 mm thick (Figure 1G). There were nonspecific pigment alterations adjacent to the lesion. Fluorescein angiography, ultrasonography, and OCT revealed findings similar to the other cases. Fundus AF showed slightly hyperautofluorescence (Figure 2C).

CASE 7

A 78-year-old man had PSCRAP near the nasal equator in the left eye, measuring 2.0 mm in diameter and 1.9 mm thick (Figure 1H). There was a focus of pigmentation adjacent to the lesion. Fluorescein angiography, AF, ultrasonography, and OCT (Figure 2H) revealed findings similar to the other cases. Visual acuity and the lesion were unchanged at 10 months.

The cases reported herein have specific features that, to our knowledge, have not been clearly defined in the literature. Because the lesions were white and yellow and located in the sensory retina, we coined the term presumedsolitary circumscribed retinal astrocytic proliferation, or PSCRAP. In our cohort, PSCRAP lesions occurred in middle-aged to older white patients, and 5 of the 7 were men. The lesions were opaque, preventing a clear view of deeper retinal structures. The adjacent retinal blood vessels passed through or around the lesion, were not dilated or tortuous, and did not have the appearance of feeder vessels. There was no appreciable traction on the normal retinal blood vessels, suggesting that there was no adjacent gliosis. Each lesion was small, solitary, and well defined. All were located in the sensory retina, presumably the nerve fiber layer, and it was not possible to determine how far they extended into the deeper retinal layers. No lesion showed ophthalmoscopic or ultrasonographic evidence of calcification. None had subretinal fluid or yellow lipoproteinaceous exudation. Three of the lesions (Figure 1A [case 1], G [case 6], and H [case 7]) were associated with minor adjacent pigmentation, suggesting a reactive process with mild hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium. One lesion (Figure 1A) had slight visibility of a marginal blood vessel within the lesion, but it was clearly located mostly in the nerve fiber layer.

It is important to differentiate PSCRAP from other similar retinal conditions on the basis of ophthalmoscopic features and ancillary studies.129 The main lesions in the differential diagnosis include retinal astrocytic hamartoma, acquired retinal astrocytoma, retinoblastoma, myelinated retinal nerve fibers, granuloma, and reactive gliosis. With the exception of astrocytic hamartoma, these conditions are quite different from PSCRAP; the differentiating features are listed in Table 2.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. Comparison of PSCRAP With Other Small Retinal Lesionsa

There are subtle but important differences between PSCRAP and astrocytic hamartoma (Table 2). Presumed solitary circumscribed retinal astrocytic proliferation is diagnosed in middle-aged or older people who have no personal or family history of TSC. Astrocytic hamartoma is usually diagnosed in early life, and affected children often have clinical findings of TSC. Presumed solitary circumscribed retinal astrocytic proliferation is unilateral and solitary, whereas astrocytic hamartoma is often multiple and bilateral. Ophthalmoscopically, PSCRAP is opaque and permits no fundus view of the deeper retinal vessels, whereas astrocytic hamartoma is frequently mildly opaque or translucent, and intrinsic vessels are often easily seen. Presumed solitary circumscribed retinal astrocytic proliferation is usually discrete and well defined, whereas astrocytic hamartoma is less well defined and often has a diffuse transparent component, making the margins more difficult to identify. From the cases seen so far, PSCRAP does not show adjacent retinal gliosis and retinal dragging, but astrocytic hamartoma often has adjacent gliosis that pulls on the nearby retinal vessels. Concerning color, PSCRAP tends to be pure white, whereas astrocytic hamartoma is often more yellow to yellow-white. Calcification is not present clinically or ultrasonographically in PSCRAP but is usually demonstrable in astrocytic hamartoma. Presumed solitary circumscribed retinal astrocytic proliferation appears to remain stable on follow-up, with no tendency to grow or to cause local complications. It is likely that PSCRAP enlarged at one time to attain its observed size. Most astrocytic hamartomas remain stable or demonstrate mild progression, but, on occasion, astrocytic hamartoma can show growth and mild to severe ocular complications, including exudation,11 vitreous seeding of tumor cells,12 vitreous hemorrhage,13 tractional retinal detachment,14 and proliferative retinopathy.15,16 Such ophthalmoscopic features and clinical course did not occur in our patients with PSCRAP.

Another retinal glial tumor is the acquired retinal astrocytoma, which generally occurs in older individuals who have no history or findings of TSC. In contrast to PSCRAP, it usually exhibits a more aggressive clinical course, with slow enlargement and progressive exudation.3,2023 We believe that acquired retinal astrocytoma is the retinal counterpart of a low-grade astrocytoma that occurs in the brain.

A small retinoblastoma differs from PSCRAP by virtue of the fact that it occurs in children and develops retinal feeding and draining vessels when it is still small. Myelinated retinal nerve fibers might superficially resemble PSCRAP, but they appear during childhood and are usually stationary.30 In contrast to PSCRAP, they have an almost feathery margin, quite different from the distinct margin seen with PSCRAP.

In PSCRAP, ancillary studies, such as FA, AF, ultrasonography, and OCT, show findings that are somewhat similar to astrocytic hamartoma. However, there have not been enough cases studied to make detailed comparisons. It is our impression that FA of PSCRAP shows less early vascularity and less late staining than does astrocytic hamartoma. Ultrasonography does not reveal calcification in PSCRAP; calcification is commonly seen in astrocytic hamartoma, although it may not be apparent ophthalmoscopically. Both lesions can show AF, but not enough cases have been studied to draw conclusions. In both conditions, OCT reveals a dense lesion in the sensory retina with posterior shadowing. However, PSCRAP does not demonstrate the “moth-eaten” appearance that characterizes most calcified astrocytic hamartomas.28,29 The further differentiation of PSCRAP from a variety of other conditions, using clinical and imaging studies, is shown in Table 2.3,2427

None of the PSCRAP lesions in our series have shown progression. One patient (case 3) experienced spontaneous regression of the lesion more than 1 year after it was detected. The reason for this is unclear.

The histopathologic mechanism of PSCRAP is currently unknown. However, in 1971, Ganley and Streeten31 reported the histopathologic findings of a retinal lesion that was discovered when sectioning an eye being enucleated for choroidal melanoma. The lesion had not been noted clinically before the enucleation, but the description suggested that the lesion was similar to the PSCRAP lesions described in this report. That lesion was proved histopathologically to be a circumscribed proliferation of benign astrocytes confined to the nerve fiber layer without invasion of the ganglion cell layer. As is often true in such cases, it could not be clearly determined whether the lesion was reactive or neoplastic.

In addition to a pure proliferation of typical astrocytes, one could speculate that PSCRAP might represent a proliferation of oligodendrocytes, as is believed to occur with myelinated retinal nerve fibers.30,32 Although oligodendroglioma classically occurs in the central nervous system, we are aware of 2 reports of oligodendrogliomas of the retina.33,34 One of these33 was subsequently reviewed and reclassified as a well-differentiated retinoblastoma. The other case was a progressively enlarging lesion that resembled retinoblastoma.35,36

Our term PSCRAP seems appropriate for the condition described in this report. Thus far, all cases have been solitary, unilateral, circumscribed, and located in the sensory retina. Because of the light color and location in the sensory retina, we believe that PSCRAP is most likely composed of a proliferation of astrocytes. However, because the histopathologic features remain uncertain, the words presumed astrocytic proliferation are currently applied to this entity.

In summary, we describe 7 cases of a unique retinal lesion termed PSCRAP. Occurring in adults, PSCRAP is a benign stationary lesion that does not appear to cause visual loss or other complications. The main importance lies in its differentiation from similar lesions (Table 2), such as astrocytic hamartoma, acquired retinal astrocytoma, retinoblastoma, myelinated retinal nerve fibers, granuloma, and other fundus lesions that can have serious ocular and systemic implications. The pathogenesis of PSCRAP remains speculative.

Correspondence: Jerry A. Shields, MD, Ocular Oncology Service, Wills Eye Institute, 840 Walnut St, Ste 1440, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (jerryshields@comcast.net).

Submitted for Publication: January 9, 2010; final revision received December 22, 2010; accepted December 23, 2010.

Author Contributions: Dr J. A. Shields had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Financial Disclosure: None reported.

Funding/Support: This study was supported by a donation from the Eye Tumor Research Foundation (Drs J. A. and C. L. Shields), by Mellon Charitable Giving from the Martha W. Rogers Charitable Trust (Dr C. L. Shields), by the Paul Kayser International Award of Merit in Retina Research (Dr J. A. Shields), by the LuEsther Mertz Retina Research Foundation (Dr C. L. Shields), and by a donation from the Michael, Bruce, and Ellen Ratnor Foundation (Drs C. L. and J. A. Shields).

Role of the Sponsors: The sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, and approval of the manuscript.

Previous Presentation: This study was presented as part of the 2010 Jonathan W. Wirtschafter Lecture; February 13, 2010; University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

Green WR. Retina: retinal and periretinal proliferations. In: Spencer WH, ed. Ophthalmic Pathology: An Atlas and Textbook. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Co; 1997;773-798
Nork TM, Ghobrial MW, Peyman GA, Tso MO. Massive retinal gliosis: a reactive proliferation of Müller cells.  Arch Ophthalmol. 1986;104(9):1383-1389
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Shields JA, Shields CL. Glial tumors of the retina and optic disc. In: Shields JA, Shields CL, eds. Intraocular Tumors: An Atlas and Textbook. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008:406-427
Demirci H, Shields CL, Shields JA, Honavar SG. Spontaneous disappearance of presumed retinal astrocytic hyperplasia.  Retina. 2002;22(2):237-239
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Shields JA. Retinal astrocytoma. In: Guyer DR, Yannuzzi LA, Chang S, Shields JA, Green WR, eds. Retina-Vitreous-Macula. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Co; 1999:1182-1187
Shields JA, Shields CL. The systemic hamartomatoses (“phakomatoses”). In: Nelson LA, Olitsky SE, eds. Harley's Pediatric Ophthalmology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005:436-447
Cruess AF, Sharma S. Tuberous sclerosis and the eye. In: Ryan SJ, Schachat AP, eds. Retina. 4th ed. St Louis, MO: Mosby–Year Book; 2006:625-631
Nyboer JH, Robertson DM, Gomez MR. Retinal lesions in tuberous sclerosis.  Arch Ophthalmol. 1976;94(8):1277-1280
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Zimmer-Galler IE, Robertson DM. Long-term observation of retinal lesions in tuberous sclerosis.  Am J Ophthalmol. 1995;119(3):318-324
PubMed
Mullaney PB, Jacquemin C, Abboud E, Karcioglu ZA. Tuberous sclerosis in infancy.  J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1997;34(6):372-375
PubMed
Giles J, Singh AD, Rundle PA, Noe KP, Rennie IG. Retinal astrocytic hamartoma with exudation.  Eye (Lond). 2005;19(6):724-725
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Cohen VM, Shields CL, Furuta M, Shields JA. Vitreous seeding from retinal astrocytoma in three cases.  Retina. 2008;28(6):884-888
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Kroll AJ, Ricker DP, Robb RM, Albert DM. Vitreous hemorrhage complicating retinal astrocytic hamartoma.  Surv Ophthalmol. 1981;26(1):31-38
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Inoue M, Hirakarta A, Iizuka N, Futagami S, Hida T. Tractional macular detachment associated with optic disc astrocytic hamartoma.  Acta Ophthalmol. 2009;87(2):239-240
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Jost BF, Olk RJ. Atypical retinitis proliferans, retinal telangiectasis, and vitreous hemorrhage in a patient with tuberous sclerosis.  Retina. 1986;6(1):53-56
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Coppeto JR, Lubin JR, Albert DM. Astrocytic hamartoma in tuberous sclerosis mimicking necrotizing retinochoroiditis.  J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1982;19(6):306-313
PubMed
Margo CE, Barletta JP, Staman JA. Giant cell astrocytoma of the retina in tuberous sclerosis.  Retina. 1993;13(2):155-159
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Shields JA, Eagle RC Jr, Shields CL, Marr BP. Aggressive retinal astrocytomas in 4 patients with tuberous sclerosis complex.  Arch Ophthalmol. 2005;123(6):856-863
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Gündüz K, Eagle RC Jr, Shields CL, Shields JA, Augsburger JJ. Invasive giant cell astrocytoma of the retina in a patient with tuberous sclerosis.  Ophthalmology. 1999;106(3):639-642
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Reeser FH, Aaberg TM, Van Horn DL. Astrocytic hamartoma of the retina not associated with tuberous sclerosis.  Am J Ophthalmol. 1978;86(5):688-698
PubMed
Shields CL, Shields JA, Eagle RC Jr, Cangemi F. Progressive enlargement of acquired retinal astrocytoma in 2 cases.  Ophthalmology. 2004;111(2):363-368
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Ramsay RC, Kinyoun JL, Hill CW, Aturaliya UP, Knobloch WH. Retinal astrocytoma.  Am J Ophthalmol. 1979;88(1):32-36
PubMed
Bornfeld N, Messmer EP, Theodossiadis G, Meyer-Schwickerath G, Wessing A. Giant cell astrocytoma of the retina: clinicopathologic report of a case not associated with Bourneville's disease.  Retina. 1987;7(3):183-189
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Yanoff M, Zimmerman LE, Davis RL. Massive gliosis of the retina.  Int Ophthalmol Clin. 1971;11(3):211-229
PubMed
Berger B, Peyman GA, Juarez C, Mason G, Raichand M. Massive retinal gliosis simulating choroidal melanoma.  Can J Ophthalmol. 1979;14(4):285-290
PubMed
Green WR. Bilateral Coats' disease: massive gliosis of the retina.  Arch Ophthalmol. 1967;77(3):378-383
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Ryan H. Massive retinal gliosis.  Trans Ophthalmol Soc Aust. 1954;14:77-83
PubMed
Shields CL, Mashayekhi A, Luo CK, Materin MA, Shields JA. Optical coherence tomography in children: analysis of 44 eyes with intraocular tumors and simulating conditions.  J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2004;41(6):338-344
PubMed
Shields CL, Benevides R, Materin MA, Shields JA. Optical coherence tomography of retinal astrocytic hamartoma in 15 cases.  Ophthalmology. 2006;113(9):1553-1557
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Rosen B, Barry C, Constable IJ. Progression of myelinated retinal nerve fibers.  Am J Ophthalmol. 1999;127(4):471-473
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Ganley JP, Streeten BW. Glial nodules of the inner retina.  Am J Ophthalmol. 1971;71(5):1099-1103
PubMed
Tarabishy AB, Alexandrou TJ, Traboulsi EI. Syndrome of myelinated retinal nerve fibers, myopia, and amblyopia: a review.  Surv Ophthalmol. 2007;52(6):588-596
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Boniuk M, Bishop DW. Oligodendroglioma of the retina.  Surv Ophthalmol. 1969;13(5):284-289
PubMed
Marek J, Jakubaszko-Turkiewicz J, Oficjalska-Mlynczak J, Markowska-Woyciechowska A. Retinal oligodendroglioma.  Am J Ophthalmol. 1999;128(3):389-391
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Paysse EA, Coats D, Chévez-Barrios P. An unusual case of leukocoria: heterotopic brain arising from the retina.  Arch Ophthalmol. 2003;121(1):119-122
PubMed
Patel S, Dondey J, Chan HS,  et al.  Leukocoria caused by intraocular heterotopic brain tissue.  Arch Ophthalmol. 2004;122(3):390-393
PubMed   |  Link to Article

Figures

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Graphic Jump Location

Figure 1. Ophthalmoscopic appearance of 7 patients with presumed solitary circumscribed retinal astrocytic proliferation. A, Case 1. B, Case 2. C, Case 3 when first detected. D, Case 3, 1 year later, showing that the lesion has resolved without treatment. E, Case 4. F, Case 5. G, Case 6. H, Case 7.

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Graphic Jump Location

Figure 2. Representative imaging findings in patients with presumed solitary circumscribed retinal astrocytic proliferation. A, A fluorescein angiogram (FA) in the full venous phase shows minimal fluorescence of the lesion along the inferotemporal vascular arcade in case 2. B, An FA in recirculation phase shows moderate well-circumscribed fluorescence of the same lesion in case 2. C, Autofluorescence in case 6. D, B-scan ultrasonography in case 6. E, Optical coherence tomography (OCT) in case 4. F, OCT in case 5. G, OCT in case 2. H, OCT in case 7.

Tables

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 1. Clinical Findings in 7 Patients With Presumed Solitary Circumscribed Retinal Astrocytic Proliferation
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. Comparison of PSCRAP With Other Small Retinal Lesionsa

References

Green WR. Retina: retinal and periretinal proliferations. In: Spencer WH, ed. Ophthalmic Pathology: An Atlas and Textbook. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Co; 1997;773-798
Nork TM, Ghobrial MW, Peyman GA, Tso MO. Massive retinal gliosis: a reactive proliferation of Müller cells.  Arch Ophthalmol. 1986;104(9):1383-1389
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Shields JA, Shields CL. Glial tumors of the retina and optic disc. In: Shields JA, Shields CL, eds. Intraocular Tumors: An Atlas and Textbook. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008:406-427
Demirci H, Shields CL, Shields JA, Honavar SG. Spontaneous disappearance of presumed retinal astrocytic hyperplasia.  Retina. 2002;22(2):237-239
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Shields JA. Retinal astrocytoma. In: Guyer DR, Yannuzzi LA, Chang S, Shields JA, Green WR, eds. Retina-Vitreous-Macula. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Co; 1999:1182-1187
Shields JA, Shields CL. The systemic hamartomatoses (“phakomatoses”). In: Nelson LA, Olitsky SE, eds. Harley's Pediatric Ophthalmology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005:436-447
Cruess AF, Sharma S. Tuberous sclerosis and the eye. In: Ryan SJ, Schachat AP, eds. Retina. 4th ed. St Louis, MO: Mosby–Year Book; 2006:625-631
Nyboer JH, Robertson DM, Gomez MR. Retinal lesions in tuberous sclerosis.  Arch Ophthalmol. 1976;94(8):1277-1280
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Zimmer-Galler IE, Robertson DM. Long-term observation of retinal lesions in tuberous sclerosis.  Am J Ophthalmol. 1995;119(3):318-324
PubMed
Mullaney PB, Jacquemin C, Abboud E, Karcioglu ZA. Tuberous sclerosis in infancy.  J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1997;34(6):372-375
PubMed
Giles J, Singh AD, Rundle PA, Noe KP, Rennie IG. Retinal astrocytic hamartoma with exudation.  Eye (Lond). 2005;19(6):724-725
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Cohen VM, Shields CL, Furuta M, Shields JA. Vitreous seeding from retinal astrocytoma in three cases.  Retina. 2008;28(6):884-888
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Kroll AJ, Ricker DP, Robb RM, Albert DM. Vitreous hemorrhage complicating retinal astrocytic hamartoma.  Surv Ophthalmol. 1981;26(1):31-38
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Inoue M, Hirakarta A, Iizuka N, Futagami S, Hida T. Tractional macular detachment associated with optic disc astrocytic hamartoma.  Acta Ophthalmol. 2009;87(2):239-240
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Jost BF, Olk RJ. Atypical retinitis proliferans, retinal telangiectasis, and vitreous hemorrhage in a patient with tuberous sclerosis.  Retina. 1986;6(1):53-56
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Coppeto JR, Lubin JR, Albert DM. Astrocytic hamartoma in tuberous sclerosis mimicking necrotizing retinochoroiditis.  J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1982;19(6):306-313
PubMed
Margo CE, Barletta JP, Staman JA. Giant cell astrocytoma of the retina in tuberous sclerosis.  Retina. 1993;13(2):155-159
PubMed   |  Link to Article
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