Editorial |

Rats! Hyperglycemia Protects Against Glaucoma!

Stuart James McKinnon, MD, PhD
Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129(10):1366-1367. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.308.
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From the early 1960s, it has been noted that the prevalence of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and open-angle glaucoma (OAG) was increased in patients with diabetes mellitus.1 Population-based studies such as the Barbados Eye Study, the Rotterdam Study, and the Blue Mountains Eye Study have shown that IOP was significantly increased in patients with diabetes.24 These cross-sectional studies have also found a positive association between diabetes and OAG, while studies such as the Baltimore Eye Survey and the African Caribbean Eye Survey did not identify a positive association.5,6 Of significance, a meta-analysis of 5 case-control studies and 7 cross-sectional studies published between 1987 and 2001 showed a positive association between diabetes and OAG, using either a random-effects model (odds ratio = 1.50) or a fixed-effects model (odds ratio = 1.27).7 In a large prospective cohort analysis involving 76 318 women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study, type 2 diabetes was positively associated with OAG (risk ratio = 1.82) after controlling for age, race, hypertension, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking, and family history of glaucoma.8


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