Background Analysis of 52 eyes with high-risk retinoblastoma managed with postenucleation adjuvant chemotherapy using vincristine sulfate, etoposide phosphate, and carboplatin showed no evidence of systemic metastasis in any case during a mean (range) follow-up of 66 (12-202) months.
Purpose To determine the efficacy of postenucleation adjuvant chemotherapy with vincristine, etoposide, and carboplatin in the prevention of metastasis for patients with high-risk retinoblastoma.
Methods Retrospective, nonrandomized, interventional case series of 52 eyes in 51 patients with high-risk retinoblastoma consisting of tumor invasion into the anterior segment, posterior uvea 3 mm or greater, postlaminar optic nerve, or any combination of posterior uvea and optic nerve involvement.
Results Of 51 consecutive patients with high-risk retinoblastoma, there were 30 males (59%) and 21 females (41%), with a median age of 28 months at diagnosis. All 52 eyes were classified as group E. The main histopathologic risk factors included anterior segment invasion (7 [13%]), isolated massive posterior uveal invasion of 3 mm or greater (6 [12%]), isolated postlaminar optic nerve invasion (15 [29%]), or any posterior uveal invasion with any optic nerve involvement (24 [46%]). There was additional invasion into the sclera (3 [6%]) and extrascleral structures, including the orbit (1 [2%]). A single histopathologic high-risk factor was present in 32 eyes (62%), whereas 20 eyes (38%) manifested 2 or more high-risk characteristics. Based on previously published series, untreated high-risk retinoblastoma carries at least a 24% risk for metastatic disease. In the present series, using vincristine, etoposide, and carboplatin in all cases, there was no metastasis during a mean follow-up of 66 months (median [range], 55 [12-202] months).
Conclusions Retinoblastoma with invasion into the postlaminar optic nerve and/or posterior uvea is at high risk for metastasis and death. In this study, postenucleation chemotherapy using vincristine, etoposide, and carboplatin was effective in preventing metastasis in every case (100%).