When patients are told by their ophthalmologist that they have early signs of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), they often ask about the risk of their AMD progressing. Long-term epidemiological studies that have collected information on the prevalence, incidence, and natural history of AMD provide data to answer this question.1- 3 These studies have shown that risk is influenced by many things, including the severity of the signs of AMD that are already present (eg, drusen size, area of involvement, and type and presence of pigmentary abnormalities), demographic factors (eg, age, sex, and race/ethnicity), family history of the disease, lifestyle factors (eg, smoking, heavy drinking, and physical activity), medical conditions (eg, inflammatory and pulmonary disease), environmental exposures (eg, light), and ocular factors (eg, history of cataract surgery).4 Risk assessment models account for multiple exposures that may influence risk. These have been useful for heart disease and have recently been developed for AMD.5- 9 These models may also help to decide on the interval of follow-up and whether to suggest options for preventive care (eg, dietary supplements and specific foods).
Thank you for submitting a comment on this article. It will be reviewed by JAMA Ophthalmology editors. You will be notified when your comment has been published. Comments should not exceed 500 words of text and 10 references.
Do not submit personal medical questions or information that could identify a specific patient, questions about a particular case, or general inquiries to an author. Only content that has not been published, posted, or submitted elsewhere should be submitted. By submitting this Comment, you and any coauthors transfer copyright to the journal if your Comment is posted.
* = Required Field
Disclosure of Any Conflicts of Interest*
Indicate all relevant conflicts of interest of each author below, including all relevant financial interests, activities, and relationships within the past 3 years including, but not limited to, employment, affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, honoraria or payment, speakers’ bureaus, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, royalties, donation of medical equipment, or patents planned, pending, or issued. If all authors have none, check "No potential conflicts or relevant financial interests" in the box below. Please also indicate any funding received in support of this work. The information will be posted with your response.
Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.
Download citation file:
Web of Science® Times Cited: 6
Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.
More Listings atJAMACareerCenter.com >
Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a link to reset your password.
Enter your username and email address. We'll send instructions on how to reset your password to the email address we have on record.
Athens and Shibboleth are access management services that provide single sign-on to protected resources. They replace the multiple user names and passwords necessary to access subscription-based content with a single user name and password that can be entered once per session. It operates independently of a user's location or IP address. If your institution uses Athens or Shibboleth authentication, please contact your site administrator to receive your user name and password.