The Central India Children Eye Study was performed in all government schools run by the local government authority in Nagpur, a city of about 3 million inhabitants in central India. Children attending government schools usually come from low to lower middle socioeconomic strata. The study included 11 829 schoolchildren. The mean (SD) age was 13.0 (1.9) years (range, 7-21 years). The Medical Ethics Committee of the Suraj Eye Institute in Nagpur approved the study. All examinations were carried out in the schools. Experienced social workers filled out a questionnaire including questions on the professions of the parents, presence of visual and ocular symptoms, and eating habits. Social workers particularly trained in refractometry measured uncorrected and corrected visual acuity. A trained ophthalmologist examined the ocular motility and searched for strabismus, performed slitlamp-based biomicroscopy of the external eye and anterior segment, and carried out an ophthalmoscopic examination. Ocular signs assessed for the presence and severity of vitamin A deficiency were xerosis of the conjunctiva, Bitot spots, corneal xerosis, and reported night blindness.