Common ophthalmic findings in shaken baby syndrome may consist of multilayered retinal hemorrhages, multilayered retinoschisis, and perimacular folds. Other rare findings in shaken baby syndrome include retinal detachment,9 retinal pigment epithelium tear,10 and epiretinal membrance.11 Goldenberg et al2 and Kiernan et al3 previously reported the presence of neovascularization and suggested the importance of bilateral laser photocoagulation therapy in subjects with NAI. However, the autopsy specimens studied herein were negative for VEGF receptor and did not demonstrate any evidence of retinal neovascularization. Endothelial progenitor cells have been described to play an important role in VEGF expression for vascular repair in traumatic brain injury,12and it is possible that a varied endothelial progenitor cell count may be present in subjects with NAI. It has also been theorized that a loss of luminal endothelial cell polarity can cause an unequal ratio of receptors, influencing the distribution and concentration of VEGF.13 With the presumed involuted blood vessels found in our NAI autopsy specimens, it is possible that the distribution of VEGF receptors on the luminal surfaces of the endothelial cells can impact the VEGF ligand distribution in the blood as well as the VEGF signaling efficiency.