Three months later, the patient went to the Chengyang People's Hospital, Qingdao, China, where she received 4 intravenous and 2 intrathecal infusions of what were purported to be umbilical cord blood stem cells according to the schedule listed in the Table; the number of cells infused was not available. Three months after the infusions, visual acuity had worsened to 20/400 (20 ETDRS letters) OD and 20/500 (15 ETDRS letters) OS. Central scotomas were much denser with mean defects of −19.86 dB OD and −21.98 dB OS (Figure 1). Optic disc swelling resolved, with mean retinal nerve fiber layer thicknesses of 97 μm OD and 91 μm OS (Figure 2). The serum phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain (square root) level had increased to 0.54 ng/mL. Nine months after purported stem cell therapy, visual acuity had worsened further to 20/600 (13 ETDRS letters) OD and 20/800 (4 ETDRS letters) OS. Optic atrophy was prominent with mean retinal nerve fiber layer thicknesses of 67 μm OD and 69 μm OS. Fifteen months after the infusions, the patient's visual acuity stabilized at 20/600 (14 ETDRS letters) OD and 20/700 (8 ETDRS letters) OS. Optic atrophy persisted with mean retinal nerve fiber layer thicknesses of 69 μm OD and 58 μm OS.