Submitted for Publication: October 28, 2011; final revision received April 27, 2012; accepted May 2, 2012.
Author Contributions: Dr Grunwald had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study Investigators: Harold I. Feldman, MD, MSCE (principal investigator), J. Richard Landis, PhD, Dina H. Appleby, MS, Shawn Ballard, MS, Denise Cifelli, MS, Robert M. Curley, MS, Jennifer Dickson, Marie Durborow, Stephen Durborow, Melanie Glenn, MPH, Asaf Hanish, MPH, Christopher Helker, MSPH, Elizabeth S. Helker, RN, Amanda Hyre Anderson, PhD, MPH, Marshall Joffe, MD, PhD, MPH, Scott Kasner, MD, MSCE, FAHA, Stephen E. Kimmel, MD, MSCEm, Shiriki Kumanyika, PhD, MPH, Carissa Mazurick, MS, Emile R. Mohler III, MD, Steven R. Messe, MD, Lisa Nessel, MSS, MLSP, Nancy Robinson, PhD, Leigh Rosen, MUEP, J. Sanford Schwartz, MD, Sandra Smith, Sandra Smith, Joan Stahl, MS, Kelvin Tao, PhD, MS, Valerie L. Teal, MS, Xin Wang, MS, Dawei Xie, PhD, Peter Yang, PhD, Xiaoming Zhang, MS (University of Pennsylvania Scientific and Data Coordinating Center); Raymond R. Townsend, MD (principal investigator), Manjunath Balaram, Thomas P. Cappola, MD, ScM, Debbie Cohen, MD, Magdalena Cuevas, Ebenezer Daniel, MBBS, MS, MPH, Mark J. Duckworth, Daniel L. Dries, MD, Virginia Ford, MSN, CRNP, Colin M. Gorman, Juan Grunwald, MD, Holly M. Hannah, Peter A. Kanetsky, PhD, MPH, Radhakrishna Kallem, Lucy Kibe, MS, Mary B. Leonard, MD, MSCE, Maureen Maguire, PhD, Stephanie McDowell, Kathleen McWilliams, John Murphy, MD, Muredach Reilly, MB, Sylvia E. Rosas, MD, Wanda M. Seamon, Angie Sheridan, MPH, Karen Teff, MD, Gui Shuang Ying, PhD (University of Pennsylvania Medical Center); Lawrence J. Appel, MD, MPH (principal investigator), Cheryl Anderson, PhD, MPH, Jeanne Charleston, RN, Nyya Etheredge, Bernard Jaar, MD, MPH, Kelly Mantegna, Carla Martin, Edgar Pete Miller, MD, Patience Ngoh, Julia Scialla, MD, Steve Sozio, MD, MHS, Sharon Turban, MD, MHS, Hemalatha Venkatesh (Johns Hopkins University); Jeffrey Fink, MD, MS (co-principal investigator), Wanda Fink, RN, BSN, Afshin Parsa, MD, MPH, Beth Scism, Stephen Seliger, MD, MS, Matthew Weir, MD (University of Maryland); Mahboob Rahman, MD (principal investigator), Mirela A. Dobre, MD, MPH (co-principal investigator), Valori Corrigan RN, Renee Dancie, CMA, Genya Kisin MA, Radhika Kanthety, Louise Strauss, RN, Jackson T. Wright Jr, MD, PhD (University Hospitals of Cleveland Case Medical Center); Jeffrey Schelling, MD (co-principal investigator), Patricia Kao, MD (co-principal investigator), Ed Horowitz, MD (co-principal investigator), Jacqui Bjaloncik, Theresa Fallon, John R. Sedor, MD, Mary Ann Shella, RN, BSN, Jacqueline Theurer, J. Daryl Thornton, MD, MPH (MetroHealth Medical Center); Martin J. Schreiber, MD (co-principal investigator), Jon Taliercio, DO (co-principal investigator), Martha Coleman, RN, BSN, Lara Danziger-Isakov, MD, MPH, Richard Fatica, MD, Sandra Halliburton, PhD, Carol Horner, RN, BSN, Teresa Markle, BS, Mohammed A. Rafey, MD, MS, Melanie Ramos, RN, Annette Russo, Stephanie Slattery, RN, Rita Spirko, RN, MSN, Kay Stelmach, RN, Velma Stephens, LPN (Cleveland Clinic Foundation); Akinlolu Ojo, MD, PhD (principal investigator), Baskaran Sundaram, MD, Jeff Briesmiester, Denise Cornish-Zirker, BSN, Crystal Gadegbeku, MD, Nancy Hill, Kenneth Jamerson, MD, Matthias Kretzler, MD, Bruce Robinson, MD, Rajiv Saran, MD, Bonnie Welliver, BSN, CNN, Jillian Wilson, Eric Young, MD, MS (University of Michigan at Ann Arbor); Susan P. Steigerwalt, MD, FACP (co-principal investigator), Keith Bellovich, DO, Jennifer DeLuca, Sherry Gasko, BSRN, Gail Makos, RN, MSN, Chantal Parmelee, Shahan Smith, Kathleen Walls (St John's Health System); John M. Flack, MD, MPH (co-principal investigator), James Sondheimer, MD, Jennifer Mahn, Mary Maysura, Stephen Migdal, MD, M. Jena Mohanty, MD, Yanni Zhuang, BSN (Wayne State University); James P. Lash, MD (principal investigator), Jose Arruda, MD, Carolyn Brecklin, MD, Eunice Carmona, BA, Janet Cohan, MSN, Michael Fischer, MD, MSPH, Anne Frydrych, MS, RD, Amada Lopez, Claudia Lora, MD, Monica Martinez, Adriana Matos, Alejandro Mercado, Brenda Moreno, Patricia Meslar, MSN, Ana Ricardo, MD, MPH, Thomas Stamos, MD, Eve Van Cauter, PhD (University of Illinois at Chicago); Jiang He, MD, PhD (principal investigator), Brent Alper, MD, Vecihi Batuman, MD, Lydia A. Bazzano, MD, PhD, Bernadette Borja, Jing Chen, MD, MSc, Catherine Cooke, Patrice Delafontaine, MD, Karen B. DeSalvo, MD, MPH, MSc, Jacquelyn Dolan, Vivian A. Fonseca, MD, Lee Hamm, MD, Michelle R. Hurly, RN, BSN, Eva Lustigova, MPH, Paul Muntner, PhD, Shea Shelton, Claire Starcke, Adriana Valencia, MPH, Paul Whelton, MD, MSc (Tulane University Health Science Center); Alan S. Go, MD (principal investigator), Lynn M. Ackerson, PhD, Pete Dorin, MPA, Daniel Fernandez, Nancy G. Jensvold, MPH, Joan C. Lo, MD, Juan D. Ordonez, MD, MPH, Rachel Perloff, Thida Tan, MPH, Daphne Thompson, Gina M. Valladares, Annette Wiggins, RN, Diana B. Wong, RN, MPH, Jingrong Yang, MA (Kaiser Permanente of Northern California); Chi-yuan Hsu, MD, MSc (co-principal investigator), Glenn M. Chertow, MD, MPH, Nisha Bansal, MD, Manju Kurella, MD, MPH, Michael G. Shlipak, MD, MPH, Kristine Yaffe, MD, (University of California, San Francisco); John W. Kusek, PhD, Andrew S. Narva, MD (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases); Kathy Faber-Langendoen, MD, Bryce A. Kiberd, MD, Elisa T. Lee, PhD, Julia Lewis, MD, William McClellan, MD, MPH, Timothy Meyer, MD, David Nathan, MD, John B. Stokes, MD, Herman Taylor, MD, Peter W. Wilson, MD (Scientific Advisory Committee); Vallabh Shah, PhD (University of New Mexico); Dominic Raj, MD, DM (George Washington University); Myles Wolf, MD, MMSc (University of Miami); Paul M. Ridker, MD (consultant; Harvard School of Medicine); Daniel J. Rader, MD, Anna DiFlorio, Steve Master, MD, PhD, Ted Mifflin, Linda Morrell, Megan L. Wolfe (University of Pennsylvania Central Lab); Phillip Hall, MD, Henry Rolin, Sue Saunders (Cleveland Clinic GFR Lab); Mathew Budoff, MD, Chris Dailing (University of California, Los Angeles EBT Reading Center); Elsayed Z. Soliman, MD, MSc, MS, Zhu-Ming Zhang, MD (Wake Forest ECG Reading Center); Martin St. John Sutton, MBBS, Martin G. Keane, MD, FACC, FAHA (University of Pennsylvania Echo Reading Center).
Financial Disclosure: The authors of this article have no relationship with companies that have financial interest in the information contained in this article. Dr Townsend is a consultant for Roche, GlaxoSmithKline, and NiCox. Dr Feldman has a contract with RTI International Amgen.
Funding/Support: This study was funded by grants R01 DK 74151, UL1 RR-024134, MO1 RR-16500, UL1 RR-024989, MO1 RR-000042, UL1 RR-024986, UL1 RR-029879, and UL1 RR-024131 from the National Institutes of Health; the Vivian S. Lasko Research Fund; the Nina C. Mackall Trust; and Research to Prevent Blindness.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge the participation of the clinical research units of the 6 participating centers that collected much of the data used to describe the population and used as covariates.