Submitted for Publication: April 9, 2012; final revision received July 19, 2012; accepted July 19, 2012.
Published Online: October 8, 2012. doi:10.1001/2013.jamaophthalmol.106
Author Contributions: Dr Musch had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by a grant from the Michigan Center for Advancing Safe Transportation Throughout the Lifespan, University of Michigan.
Previous Presentations: This research was presented in part at The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology 2011; May 2, 2011; Fort Lauderdale, FL; at The Eye and the Auto International Conference; September 12, 2011; Detroit, MI; at the American Public Health Association 139th Annual Meeting and Exposition; November 2, 2011; Washington, DC; and at the Michigan Traffic Safety Summit 2012; March 21, 2012; Lansing.
Additional Contributions: The Michigan Optometric Association and the Michigan Society of Eye Physicians and Surgeons endorsed this research and granted access to their membership rolls for participant recruitment purposes.