Objective To analyze the relationship between fluoroquinolone use at presentation and minimum inhibitory concentration in bacterial keratitis.
Methods The Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial was a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial assessing the effect of adjunctive topical corticosteroid treatment on outcomes in bacterial keratitis. After presentation, all patients were treated with moxifloxacin hydrochloride, 0.5%. We compare antibiotic use at presentation with minimum inhibitory concentration against moxifloxacin for all isolates. Separate analyses accounted for organism species and fluoroquinolone generation.
Results Topical fluoroquinolone use at presentation was reported in 92 of 480 cases (19.2%). Causative organisms in the 480 cases included Streptococcus pneumoniae (247 cases [51.5%]), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (109 cases [22.7%]), and Nocardia species (55 cases [11.5%]). Isolates from patients who reported fluoroquinolone use at presentation had a 2.01-fold–higher minimum inhibitory concentration (95% CI, 1.39-fold to 2.91-fold; P < .001). Fourth-generation fluoroquinolones were associated with a 3.48-fold–higher minimum inhibitory concentration than those isolates that were not exposed to pretreatment at enrollment (95% CI, 1.99-fold to 6.06-fold; P < .001).
Conclusion This study provides evidence that prior use of fluoroquinolones is associated with antibiotic resistance.
Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00324168