Submitted for Publication: May 2, 2012; final revision received June 11, 2012; accepted June 11, 2012.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Additional Contributions: I thank many people for their assistance. The librarian of the Caygill Library at the University of California, San Francisco, obtained a copy of the original Manniske article a couple of decades ago. Access to historic microscopes was provided by Alan Hawk, BA, of the National Museum of Health and Medicine, by J. Chelnick, MA, of the Smithsonian National Museum of American History, and most importantly by Steve Ruzin, PhD, at the University of California, Berkeley (curator of the Golub Collection). Günther Hoffmann, MD, of the DRK Manniske-Krankenhaus, Bad Frankenhausen, in addition to suggesting that D stood for doctor, generously gave substantial assistance with details of Manniske's life and hospital. The director of the Kreisheimatmuseum of Bad Frankenhausen provided essential documentation.