Conjunctival nevus is the most common tumor of the ocular surface and we selected the largest nevi to evaluate for clinical features and outcomes.
To describe the clinical features and outcomes of giant (≥10 mm diameter) conjunctival nevus.
Design, Setting, and Patients
Retrospective case series of 618 patients with conjunctival nevus, 32 of which had giant conjunctival nevus, treated at an ocular oncology service between July 1, 1974, and June 30, 2012.
Observation, excisional biopsy, and cryotherapy.
Main Outcomes and Measures
Management, nevus recurrence, and nevus transformation into melanoma.
Of 618 patients with conjunctival nevus, 32 (5%) were classified as having giant conjunctival nevus. The mean patient age at diagnosis was 34 years. Of those with giant conjunctival nevus, a history of an increase in nevus base or thickness was noted in 15 cases (47%) and an increase in color intensity in 2 cases (6%). The giant nevus involved cornea in 11 cases (34%), limbus in 23 (72%), bulbar conjunctiva in 31 (97%), fornix in 9 (28%), tarsus in 3 (9%), semilunar fold in 10 (31%), and caruncle in 7 (22%). The nevi had mean diameter of 16 mm and mean thickness of 2 mm. On slitlamp examination, intrinsic cysts were identified in 25 cases (78%), intrinsic blood vessels in 26 (81%), and feeder vessels in 22 (69%). Management included excisional biopsy with cryotherapy in 23 cases (72%) and observation in 9 cases (28%). Amniotic membrane graft reconstruction was used following excision in 3 cases (13%). Malignant melanoma developed within the giant nevus in 1 case after 23 years of observation. Postexcisional biopsy, nevus recurrence was detected in 4 cases (17%), pseudopterygium in 1 (4%), dry eye in 1 (4%), and eyelid blepharoptosis in 1 (4%).
Conclusions and Relevance
In an ocular oncology practice, giant conjunctival nevus represents 5% of conjunctival nevi. This benign tumor rarely transforms into conjunctival melanoma. Management alternatives include observation or wide excisional biopsy, cryotherapy, and reconstruction, possibly with amniotic membrane graft.