This study adhered to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki. The protocol was approved by the local institutional research ethics committees, and the data analysis was performed at the Yokohama City University Medical Center, Yokohama City, Japan. Between March 2010 and February 2011, patients with CRVO were screened for study eligibility. Twelve patients who met the eligibility criteria were included in the study, and their demographic characteristics are summarized in Table 1. The inclusion criteria were clinical and angiographic diagnosis of CRVO less than 12 weeks after the onset of CRVO, central foveal thickness exceeding 300 μm as measured by optical coherence tomography, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) between 0 and 65 Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters (Snellen VA equivalents, 20/1000 and 20/50, respectively). The exclusion criteria were glaucoma, retinal or disc neovascularization, any previous treatment of CRVO, vascular retinopathy due to other causes, and intraocular surgery during the previous 3 months. The primary end point was change in BCVA at 24 weeks after surgery compared with initial VA. The BCVA was measured by examiners who were masked to patient identification. The secondary end points were surgical complications, central foveal thickness alteration, and change in the foveal avascular zone as determined by digital imaging analysis and fluorescein angiography.