Original Investigation | Clinical Sciences

Evolution of Vitreomacular Detachment in Healthy Subjects

Hirotaka Itakura, MD1; Shoji Kishi, MD1
[+] Author Affiliations
1Department of Ophthalmology, Gunma University, School of Medicine, Maebashi, Japan
JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013;131(10):1348-1352. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2013.4578.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Importance  Development of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) plays an important role in vitreomacular diseases. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) with noise reduction can visualize a posterior precortical vitreous pocket (PPVP) and classify PVD stages according to the state of the posterior wall of the PPVP.

Objective  To describe the role of the PPVP in early-stage PVDs in healthy individuals.

Design, Setting, and Participants  We performed biomicroscopy and SD-OCT in the right eyes of 368 healthy volunteers (188 males and 180 females; mean [SD] age, 57.1 [19.4] years; range, 12-89 years).

Results  The condition of the posterior wall of the PPVP was classified into stages according to the biomicroscopic findings and SD-OCT images: stage 0, no PVD with PPVP (134 eyes; mean [SD] subject age, 38.7 [16.5] years; range, 12-76 years); stage 1, paramacular PVD with PPVP (47 eyes; mean age, 55.2 [10.3] years; range, 36-77 years); stage 2, perifoveal PVD with PPVP (27 eyes; mean age, 62.0 [8.7] years; range, 46-81 years); stage 3, vitreofoveal separation with persistent attachment to the optic disc (19 eyes; mean age, 65.8 [6.2] years; range, 55-80 years; stage 3a, vitreofoveal separation with an intact posterior wall of the PPVP in 12 eyes; stage 3b, vitreofoveal separation with a defect in the posterior wall of the PPVP in 7 eyes; and stage 4, complete PVD (141 eyes; mean age, 73.2 [8.3] years; range, 48-89 years).

Main Outcomes and Measures  Ages in each PVD stage.

Conclusions and Relevance  The posterior wall of the PPVP initially detaches at the paramacular area and extends to the perifoveal area, which results in a perifoveal PVD. A vitreofoveal detachment may develop with or without a defect in the PPVP. When the vitreous detaches from the optic disc, a complete PVD develops. An anatomical feature of the PPVP may play a role in the development of a perifoveal PVD.

Figures in this Article

Sign In to Access Full Content

Don't have Access?

Register and get free email Table of Contents alerts, saved searches, PowerPoint downloads, CME quizzes, and more

Subscribe for full-text access to content from 1998 forward and a host of useful features

Activate your current subscription (AMA members and current subscribers)

Purchase Online Access to this article for 24 hours


Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 1.
Stages of Posterior Vitreous Detachment (PVD) Development

A, Stage 0, no PVD. B, Stage 1, paramacular PVD. C, Stage 2, perifoveal PVD. D, Stage 3a, vitreofoveal separation with persistent attachment to the optic disc and intact posterior precortical vitreous pocket (PPVP). E, Stage 3b, vitreofoveal separation with disrupted posterior wall of the PPVP. F, Stage 4, complete PVD. P indicates PPVP; C, Cloquet canal; S, superior; T, temporal; I, inferior; N, nasal; thin arrows, anterior border of PPVP; thick arrows, posterior wall of PPVP; and 1, single scan.

Graphic Jump Location
Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 2.
Percentage of Subjects With Each Stage of Posterior Vitreous Detachment (PVD) by Decade of Life

Percentages for each stage of PVD are displayed by age group; see Table 1 for details.

Graphic Jump Location




Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).
Submit a Comment


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Web of Science® Times Cited: 1

Sign In to Access Full Content

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Articles Related By Topic
Related Topics
PubMed Articles