Submitted for Publication: October 4, 2013; final revision received December 30, 2013; accepted January 6, 2014.
Published Online: May 1, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2014.392.
Study concept and design: Repka, Kraker, Holmes.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Repka, Kraker, Tien.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Kraker.
Obtained funding: Repka, Kraker, Holmes.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Repka, Kraker, Holmes, Summers, Glaser, Tien.
Study supervision: Repka, Kraker, Holmes, Glaser, Tien.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported through cooperative agreements EY011751 and EY018810 from the National Eye Institute of the National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding organization had no role in the design and conduct of this study; the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Previous Presentations: This study was presented at the Annual Meeting of the European Strabismological Association; September 5, 2013; Marseille, France; and at the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Optometry; October 25, 2013; Seattle, Washington.
Clinical Sites: The following PEDIG members participated in the study and are listed by clinical site (number of patients completing the 15-year examination):
Nicholas A. Sala, (investigator [I]), Rhonda M. Hodde (coordinator [C]), Veda L. Zeto (C), and Jeanine M. Romeo (C), Pediatric Ophthalmology of Erie, Erie, Pennsylvania (19); William F. Astle (I), Anna L. Ells (I), Christine M. Millar (C), Heather N. Sandusky (C), Emi N. Sanders (C), and Charlene D. Gillis (visual acuity examiner [E]), Alberta Children’s Hospital, Calgary, Alberta, Canada (14); David R. Tien (I), Samantha J. Garner (C), Myra B. McGuinness (C), and Shannon M. Lees (C), Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Associates, Providence, Rhode Island (14); Robert W. Arnold (I) and Mary D. Armitage (C), Ophthalmic Associates, Anchorage, Alaska (13); Stephen R. Glaser (I), Tracey L. Coussens (C), Noga Senderowitsch (C), and Laura L. Graham (C), Stephen R. Glaser, MD, PC, Rockville, Maryland (12); Michael X. Repka (I), Alex Christoff (C), Carole R. Goodman (C), and Xiaonong Liu (C), Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute, The John Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (10)*; Susan A. Cotter (I), Raymond H. Chu (I), Lernik Mesropian (I), Tawna L. Roberts (I), and Susan M. Parker (C), Southern California College of Optometry, Fullerton (8); Cynthia L. Beauchamp (I), David R. Stager (I), Joost Felius (C), and Angela Goodloe (C), Pediatric Ophthalmology, Dallas, Texas (7); Andrew J. Levada (I), Cheryl Capobianco (C), Tabitha L. Walker (C), and Katelyn J. Marella (E), The Eye Care Group, PC, Waterbury, Connecticut (6); Evelyn A. Paysse (I), David K. Coats (I), Cindy J. Dorenbach (C), and Lingkun Kong (C), Department of Ophthalmology, Texas Children’s Hospital, Houston (5); Mark S. Ruttum (I) and Veronica R. Picard (C), Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (5); Jonathan M. Holmes (I), Sarah R. Hatt (C), Rebecca A. Nielsen (C), and Julie A. Holmquist (E), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (5)*; Oscar A. Cruz (I), Bradley V. Davitt (I), and Emily A. Miyazaki (C), Cardinal Glennon Children’s Hospital, St Louis, Missouri (4); Charles R. Whitfill (I), Amy M. Wheeler (C), and Rebecca J. Zinn (E), Greene Vision Group, Wichita, Kansas (4); Robert P. Rutstein (I), Wendy L. Marsh-Tootle (I), Michael P. Hill (C), and Ross B. Roegner (C), University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Optometry (4); Susannah Longmuir (I), Richard J. Olson (I), and Wanda I. Ottar-Pfeifer (C), University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City (3); C. G. Summers (I), Ann M. Holleschau (C), Anna I. de Melo (E), and Kathy M. Hogue (E), Department of Ophthalmology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (3)*; Patrick J. Droste (I), Robert J. Peters (I), and Jan Hilbrands (C), Pediatric Ophthalmology, PC, Grand Rapids, Michigan (3); David R. Weakley (I), Clare L. Dias (C), and Emily K. Linsenbardt (C), Children’s Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (2); Daniel J. Karr (I), Paula K. Rauch (C), Pamela H. Berg (E), Yelena M. Bubnov (E), and Albert Romo (E), Casey Eye Institute, Portland, Oregon (2); James B. Ruben (I) and Dipti Desai (C), The Permanente Medical Group, Roseville, California (2); Marjean T. Kulp (I) and Freda D. Dallas (C), The Ohio State University College of Optometry, Columbus (2); David I. Silbert (I) and Noelle S. Matta (C), Family Eye Group, Lancaster, Pennsylvania (1); Scott R. Lambert (I), Judy L. Brower (C), and Rachel A. Robb (C), The Emory Eye Center, Atlanta, Georgia (1); Sean P. Donahue (I) and Lisa A. Fraine (C), Vanderbilt Eye Center, Nashville, Tennessee (1)*; and Earl R. Crouch Jr (I) and Gaylord G. Ventura (C), Department of Ophthalmology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk (1). *Center received support used for this project from an unrestricted grant from Research to Prevent Blindness Inc.
PEDIG Coordinating Center: Raymond T. Kraker, Roy W. Beck, Christina M. Cagnina-Morales, Danielle L. Chandler, Courtney L. Conner, Quayleen Donahue, Brooke P. Fimbel, James E. Hoepner, Curtis R. Koh, Elizabeth L. Lazar, B. Michele Melia, Diana E. Rojas, and Jennifer A. Shah.
National Eye Institute, Bethesda, Maryland: Donald F. Everett.
Amblyopia Treatment Study Steering Committee: Eileen E. Birch, Susan A. Cotter, Donald F. Everett, Nicole C. Foster, Richard P. Golden (2012 to present), Jonathan M. Holmes, Sarah K. Jones (2013 to present), Raymond T. Kraker, Marjean T. Kulp, Elizabeth L. Lazar, David B. Petersen, Stacy Pineles (2013 to present), Michael X. Repka, Gaylord G. Ventura (2011-2013), Lisa C. Verderber (2011-2012), and David K. Wallace.
PEDIG Executive Committee: Jonathan M. Holmes (chair), Darron A. Bacal (2009-2010), Roy W. Beck, Eileen E. Birch, Stephen P. Christiansen (2009-2010), Susan A. Cotter (2009 to present), Eric R. Crouch III (2010-2011), Laura B. Enyedi (2011-2013), Donald F. Everett, Darren L. Hoover (2008, 2011 to present), Pamela A. Huston (2009-2010), Jorie L. Jackson (2011-2012), Raymond T. Kraker, Marjean T. Kulp (2010-2012), Aaron M. Miller (2011-2012), David G. Morrison (2008-2009), David B. Petersen (2011 to present), Michael X. Repka, David L. Rogers (2011-2013), Robert P. Rutstein (2009-2010), Nicholas A. Sala (2009-2010), Benjamin H. Ticho (2010-2011), and David K. Wallace (2009 to present).
PEDIG Data and Safety Monitoring Committee: Marie Diener-West (chair), John D. Baker, Barry Davis, Donald F. Everett, Dale L. Phelps, Stephen Poff, Richard A. Saunders, and Lawrence Tychsen.