Initial treatment for amblyopia of the fellow eye with patching and atropine sulfate eyedrops improves visual acuity (VA). Because long-term data on the durability of treatment benefit are needed, Repka and colleagues reported VA at 15 years of age among patients who were younger than 7 years when enrolled in a treatment trial for moderate amblyopia. A total of 419 children with amblyopia (VA, 20/40 to 20/100) were randomly assigned to patching (minimum of 6 h/d) or atropine sulfate eyedrops, 1% (1 drop daily), for 6 months. Treatment after 6 months was at the discretion of the investigator. Two years after enrollment, an unselected subgroup of 188 children were enrolled into long-term follow-up. At 15 years, most children treated for moderate amblyopia when younger than 7 years had good VA, although mild residual amblyopia was common. The outcome was similar regardless of initial treatment with atropine or patching. The results indicated that improvement with amblyopia treatment is maintained until at least age 15 years.