Submitted for Publication: February 11, 2014; final revision received April 28, 2014; accepted April 29, 2014.
Published Online: September 18, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2014.3478.
Study concept and design: Christen, Lippman, G. E. Goodman, Minasian.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Christen, Glynn, Gaziano, Darke, Crowley, P. J. Goodman, Lippman, Lad, Bearden, G. E. Goodman, Thompson, Blanke, Klein.
Drafting of the manuscript: Christen, Lippman.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Glynn, Gaziano, Darke, Crowley, P. J. Goodman, Lippman, Lad, Bearden, G. E. Goodman, Minasian, Thompson, Blanke, Klein.
Statistical analysis: Glynn, Darke, P. J. Goodman.
Obtained funding: Christen, Crowley, Lippman, Klein.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Christen, Gaziano, Lippman, Bearden, G. E. Goodman, Minasian, Thompson, Blanke, Klein.
Study supervision: Christen, P. J. Goodman, G. E. Goodman, Minasian.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Gaziano received study support and a speaking honorarium from Pfizer related to vitamins. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by grant EY014418 and in part by grant CA37429 from the Public Health Service Cooperative Agreement awarded by the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Information: Study agents and packaging were provided by Sabinsa Corporation, Tishcon Corporation, and DSM Nutritional Products, Inc. Optional study multivitamins were provided by Perrigo Company.