Submitted for Publication: March 10, 2014; final revision received July 7, 2014; accepted July 9, 2014.
Published Online: October 16, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2014.3923.
Study concept and design: Sugar, Gal, Holland, Lass, Mannis, Beck.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Sugar, Kollman, Raghinaru, Dontchev, Croasdale, Feder, Holland, Lass, Macy, Mannis, Smith, Soukiasian.
Drafting of the manuscript: Sugar, Gal, Raghinaru, Lass, Macy.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Sugar, Gal, Kollman, Dontchev, Croasdale, Feder, Holland, Lass, Mannis, Smith, Soukiasian, Beck.
Statistical analysis: Kollman, Raghinaru, Dontchev.
Obtained funding: Holland, Lass, Beck.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Sugar, Feder, Holland, Lass, Macy.
Study supervision: Gal, Kollman, Mannis.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by cooperative agreements EY12728 and EY12358 with the National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, and by the Eye Bank Association of America, Bausch & Lomb, Inc, Tissue Banks International, Vision Share, Inc, San Diego Eye Bank, The Cornea Society, Katena Products, Inc, ViroMed Laboratories, Inc, Midwest Eye Bank (Michigan Eye Bank, Illinois Eye Bank, Cleveland Eye Bank, and Lions Eye Bank of New Jersey), Konan Medical Corp, Eye Bank for Sight Restoration, SightLife, Sight Society of Northeastern New York (Lions Eye Bank of Albany), and Lions Eye Bank of Oregon.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Members of the Cornea Donor Study Research Group: The following investigators and sites participated in the Cornea Donor Study Research Group (number of patients participating): Christopher Y. Chow, MD, Steven P. Dunn, MD, David G. Heidemann, MD, Tina MacLeod, and Theresa Price, Michigan Cornea Consultants, PC, Southfield, Michigan (77); Michael W. Belin, MD, Robert L. Schultze, MD, Cassandra Semeiks, and Charity Sutherland, Cornea Consultants of Albany, Albany, New York (58); Matthew S. Oliva, MD, Walter M. Rotkis, MD, Cindy Huddleston, Richard McDonald, and Joy Taylor, Seattle, Washington (47); David D. Verdier, MD, and Paula Johnson, Verdier Eye Center, PC, Grand Rapids, Michigan (41); Jonathan H. Lass, MD, William J. Reinhart, MD, Annapurna Singh, MD, Joseph M. Thomas, MD, Stefan D. Trocme, MD, Lauren Brown, Kristee Mines, Megin Murray, Marie Norell, Stephanie Shaffer, and Kalisha Washington, University Hospitals Eye Institute, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio (33); Stephen M. Hamilton, MD, Gina C. Jayawant, MD, W. Barry Lee, MD, Jacqueline Larson, and Melanie Simner, Eye Consultants of Atlanta, PC, Atlanta, Georgia (30); Robert H. Gross, MD, Edward L. Shaw, MD, and Pamela Blackburn, Cornea Consultants of Arizona, Phoenix, Arizona (28); Steven L. Maskin, MD, Eloise Eggers, Harriet Lutzk, and Sherry Wagner, Cornea and Eye Surface Center, Tampa, Florida (28); Brandon D. Ayres, MD, Parveen K. Nagra, MD, Irving M. Raber, MD, Joy DiCicco, and Irene Spanelis-Diaz, Ophthalmic Subspecialty Consultants, Narberth, Pennsylvania (26); Joel Sugar, MD, Elmer Tu, MD, and Dolores Byrne, University of Illinois at Chicago (25); Mark S. Gorovoy, MD, Deborah Glinos, Robert Lehet, and Bernadette Nolan, Eye Associates of Fort Myers, Ft Myers, Florida (24); Francis J. Manning, MD, and Brenda Shelly, Eye Physicians of Lancaster, Lancaster, Pennsylvania (24); Thomas S. Boland, MD, Stephen E. Pascucci, MD, and Donna Kunz, Northeastern Eye Institute, Scranton, Pennsylvania (23); Qais A. Farjo, MD, Roger F. Meyer, MD, Shahzad I. Mian, MD, H. Kaz Soong, MD, Alan Sugar, MD, Munira Hussain, Jessica Knowlton, Cindy Pope, and Paulina Radenbaugh, W. K. Kellogg Eye Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (21); Paul G. Galentine, MD, Gerald B. Rosen, MD, David N. Ugland, MD, and Mara Schafer, Horizon Eye Care, Charlotte, North Carolina (21); Sadeer B. Hannush, MD, Langhorne, Pennsylvania (21); John E. Bokosky, MD, and Donna Riner, Eye Care of San Diego, San Diego, California (21); James W. Caudill, MD, and Lea Coleman, Charleston Eye Care, PLLC, Charleston, West Virginia (20); Robert S. Feder, MD, and Lori Kaminski, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois (20); John C. Affeldt, MD, Christopher L. Blanton, MD, and Monica Cancino, Inland Eye Institute, Colton, California (20); Edward J. Holland, MD, Amy Jost, and Aimee Meyer, Cincinnati Eye Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio (20); R. Wayne Bowman, MD, H. Dwight Cavanagh, MD, PhD, Mohamed-Sameh H. El-Agha, MD, James P. McCulley, MD, and Mike Molai, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas (20) (Dr El-Agha now practices in Cairo, Egypt); Thomas E. Gillette, MD, Isabel Buchan, and Michelle Corrigan, Eye Associates NW, Inc, PS, Seattle, Washington (20); Alan B. Leahey, MD, and Ann Malinowski, Lehigh Valley Eye Center, PC, Allentown, Pennsylvania (19); Christopher R. Croasdale, MD, Stephanie Blaser, Jane DeBaufer, and LuAnne Moudry, Davis Duehr Dean Clinic, Madison, Wisconsin (19); Richard A. Eiferman, MD, Pamela Durham, and Shannon Shields, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (16); Sarkis H. Soukiasian, MD, Ken Brown, Patti-Ann Morse, and Patricia Sexton, Lahey Clinic, Burlington, Massachusetts (15); Bhairavi K. Dholakia, MD, James B. Randleman, MD, R. Doyle Stulting, MD, PhD, Jayne Brown, Paul Larson, and Donna Loupe, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (14); Walter J. Stark, MD, and Kimberly Pratzer, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (14); Kenneth R. Kenyon, MD, Richard C. Rodman, MD, and Kari Crompton, Eye Health Vision Center, North Dartmouth, Massachusetts (14); Walter E. Beebe, MD, Henry Gelender, MD, and Sidney Heinle, Cornea Associates of Texas, Dallas (13); Steven S. Ching, MD, Ronald D. Plotnik, MD, Jennifer Anstey, Nancy Fedick, Peter MacDowell, Karen Skrine, and Ann Stoutenburg, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York (13); Marc A. Goldberg, MD, and Kathy Owen, The Eye Institute, Tulsa, Oklahoma (13); Karen Sumers, MD, Lisa Spentz, and Amanda Wykle, Atlanta, Georgia (12); Kenneth C. Chern, MD, Nicoletta A. Fynn-Thompson, MD, Ann Z. McColgin, MD, Michael B. Raizman, MD, Patricia Healy, and Jacqueline Pereira, Center for Eye Research and Education, Boston, Massachusetts (12); Steven I. Rosenfeld, MD, and Ellen Salvati, Delray Eye Associates, PA, Delray Beach, Florida (12); Elizabeth A. Davis, MD, David R. Hardten, MD, Richard L. Lindstrom, MD, Janet DeMarchi, Alexander Jordan, Richard Lindstrom, Sara Mork, and Allison Rockvam, Minnesota Eye Consultants, PCA, Minneapolis (12); Mark J. Mannis, MD, Katrina Imson, Michael Saya, Marilyn Sponzo, and Cindy Wallace, University of California, Davis, Sacramento (12); Jerry G. Ford, MD, Eye Associates of Tallahassee, Tallahassee, Florida (12); David M. Meisler, MD, and Laura Holody, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (11); Kendall Dobbins, MD, Francis W. Price Jr, MD, William G. Zeh, MD, and Clorissa Quillin, Price Vision Group, Indianapolis, Indiana (11); Peter J. Berkowitz, MD, and Lori Zubik, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (11); Thomas D. Lindquist, MD, PhD, and Linda Sims, Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, Washington (11); Daniel F. Goodman, MD, and Minah Yang, MD, San Francisco, California (10); Abdulfatah M. Ali, MD, Richard F. Beatty, MD, Michaela Kavanagh, Elizabeth Salinas, and Jackie Varela, Colorado Eye Physicians and Surgeons, Denver (9); John E. Sutphin, MD, Ayad A. Farjo, MD, Kenneth M. Goins, MD, and Connie Mullinnix, University of Iowa, Iowa City (9); Terry E. Burris, MD, Desiree Crowell, Susan Johnson, Dawn Kerns, Jenni Powell, and Portia Swenson, Northwest Corneal Services, Portland, Oregon (9); Peter A. Shriver, DO, Dennis Williams, MD, Kelly Perry, and Monica Wells, Southeast Eye Institute, PA, Pinellas Park, Florida (9); Cynthia A. Self, MD, Garth A. Wilbanks, MD, Courtney Chute, and Cheryl Hart, Eastern Maine Eye Associates, PA, Bangor (8); Roy S. Chuck, MD, PhD, Ronald N. Gaster, MD, Michael Bradley, MD, Winston Chamberlain, MD, Andre Cohen, MD, Kouroush Eghbali, Marjan Farid, MD, Sumit Garg, MD, Jeff Grijalva, and Whitney Lomazow, MD, University of California, Irvine (8); David W. Kielty, MD, Southcoast Eye Care, Inc, North Dartmouth, Massachusetts (7); Garvin H. Davis, MD, J. Mike Bourg, Rhonda Nolen, MD, and Teresa Solis, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston (6); Woodford S. Van Meter, MD, and Jane Webb, Lexington, Kentucky (6); Patricia W. Smith, MD, Robbin Bradshaw, Tineta Mewborn, and Jorge Sanchez, OD, Raleigh, North Carolina (6); Alan R. Schaeffer, MD, Chasity Owens, and Charlisha Price, Associated Ophthalmic Specialists, Memphis, Tennessee (6); Elisabeth J. Cohen, MD, Peter R. Laibson, MD, Christopher J. Rapuano, MD, and Andrea Gardiner, Corneal Associates, PC, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (6); Keith H. Baratz, MD, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota (6); Barton L. Halpern, MD, Mark A. Pavilack, MD, and Shawn Gallagher, PhD, Eye Doctors of Lancaster, Lancaster, Pennsylvania (5) (Dr Pavilack is now at Tidewater Eye Center, Virginia Beach, Virginia); Gerald B. Rosen, MD, Lansdale, Pennsylvania (5) (now at Horizon Eye Care, Charlotte, North Carolina); Donald J. Doughman, MD, Stephen C. Kaufman, MD, PhD, Sally Cook, and Ann Holleschau, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (5); Theodore Perl, MD, Soo Mee Pak, MD, and Angelina Fornelos, Corneal Associates of New Jersey, Fairfield (5); John W. Cowden, MD, and Sue Mussatt, University of Missouri, Columbia (4); Elliot M. Perlman, MD, Joanie Cozzo, and Margaret Gallagher-Sylvia, Rhode Island Eye Institute, Providence (4); Lance E. Olson, MD, Erik D. Skoog, MD, and Elaine Dobbs, Spokane Eye Clinic, Spokane, Washington (4); William D. Gruzensky, MD, Pacific Cataract and Laser Institute, Tacoma, Washington (4); Erich B. Groos Jr, MD, and Denise Alexander, Cornea Consultants of Nashville, PLLC, Nashville, Tennessee (3); Mark D. Mifflin, MD, Maureen K. Lundergan, MD, and Deborah Harrison, University of Utah, Salt Lake City (3); Steven T. Berger, MD, and Sandy Hyszczak, Springfield, Massachusetts (3); Kerry D. Solomon, MD, and Carol Bradham, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston (2); Richard F. Dennis, MD, Jonathan B. Rubenstein, MD, Sarah Levine, Heena Khan, Nisha Sheth, and Denise Voskull-Marre, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (2); Alexandra M. P. Kostick, MD, Atlantic Eye Center, Palm Coast, Florida (2); Samuel H. Santander, MD, MPH, Raleigh, North Carolina (2); Allen S. Roth, MD, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Beachwood, Ohio (1); Laura A. Bealer, MD, Eye Physicians and Surgeons, PC, Decatur, Georgia (1); Jonathan I. Macy, MD, Los Angeles, California (1); David G. O’Day, MD, and Linda Maynard, Charleston Cornea & Refractive Surgery, PA, Mount Pleasant, South Carolina (1); Mark A. Terry, MD, Devers Eye Institute, Portland, Oregon (1); Nunzio P. Sossi, MD, PhD, Palm Beach Eye Clinic, West Palm Beach, Florida (1); and Keith A. Walter, MD, and Joan Fish, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina (1).
Eye Banks: Midwest Eye-Banks (192) (Michigan Eye Bank, Ann Arbor ; Illinois Eye Bank, Chicago ), Florence M. Johnston (director [D]), Kyle L. Mavin (coordinator [C]), Kristen E. McCoy (C), and Michael B. O’Keefe (C); Tissue Banks International (119) (New England Eye & Tissue Transplant Bank, Boston, Massachusetts ; Indiana Lions Eye & Tissue Transplant Bank, Indianapolis ; Lions Eye Bank of North Dakota, Inc, Bismarck ; Lions Eye Bank of West Central Ohio, Dayton ; Medical Eye Bank of Maryland & Washington Eye Bank, Baltimore ; Orange County Eye & Tissue Bank, Santa Ana, California ; New Mexico Lions Eye Bank, Albuquerque ; Doheny Eye and Tissue Transplant Bank, Los Angeles, California ; Medical Eye Bank of Florida, Orlando ; Northern California Transplant Bank, Oakland ; Lions Eye Bank of New Jersey, Springfield ), Gerald J. Cole, MBA (D), Diane F. Johnston (C), Mark A. Jones (C), Sameera M. Farazdaghi, MPH (C), and Elizabeth N. Walunas (C); SightLife, Seattle, Washington (86), Monty M. Montoya, MBA (D), Bernie Iliakis (C), Rick D. McDonald (C), Misty L. Ostermiller (C), and Cathy E. Saltwick (C); Central Florida Lions Eye & Tissue Bank, Inc, Tampa (73), Jason K. Woody (D and C); Northeast Pennsylvania Lions Eye Bank, Inc, Allentown (70), Mark H. Weaver (D), Michael J. Christ (C), and Mark B. Gross (C); Minnesota Lions Eye Bank, Minneapolis (61), Carol R. Engel (D), Raylene A. Dale (C), Stephanie K. Hackl (C), Elena J. Henriksen (C), Kathryn J. Kalmoe (C), Jennifer M. Larson (C), Jackie V. Malling (C), and Brian J. Philippy (C); Sight Society of Northeastern New York, Albany (58), Maryann Sharpe-Cassese, RN, MSN (D), and Sue M. Hayes (C); Lions Eye Bank of Delaware Valley, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (58), Robert E. Lytle (D) and David A. Rechtshaffen (C); Georgia Eye Bank, Inc, Atlanta (57), Bruce Varnum (D), Erin B. Angel (C), Matt D. Durell (C), and Teresa R. Williams (C); Cleveland Eye Bank, Cleveland, Ohio (45), Susan V. Janssen (D), Brian E. Kraus (C), Marcy B. McLain (C), and Jackie A. Rossi (C); Transplant Services Center UT Southwestern, Dallas, Texas (33), Ellen L. Heck, MS, MA (D), and Marilyn S. Hayes (C); Donor Network of Arizona, Pheonix (28), Gregory C. Davis (D), Tara L. Chavez (C), Lori D. Oswald (C), and Noreen B. Ruiz (C); San Diego Eye Bank, San Diego, California (26), Jeffrey G. Penta, MBA (D), Wayne E. Dietz (C), and Jennifer L. Nary (C); Medical Eye Bank of West Virginia, Charleston (21), Kenneth R. Sheriff (D) and Nancy C. Driver (C); Lifeshare of the Carolinas, Charlotte, North Carolina (21), William J. Faircloth (D) and Paul E. Williams (C); The North Carolina Eye Bank, Inc, Winston-Salem (21), Kurt Weber, MA, MBA (D), Jerry W. Barker (C), Donna M. Bridges (C), Lee Chenier (C), and Mark Soper (C); Inland Eye & Tissue Bank, Redlands, California (20), Betsy Allen (D) and Samantha J. Wright (C); University of Louisville Lions Eye Bank, Louisville, Kentucky (16), James R. Martin (D) and Anne J. Watson (C); Sierra Eye & Tissue Donor Services-DCI, Sacramento, California (15), Greg McDonough, MS (D), and Kristel D. Beilby (C); Rochester Eye & Human Parts Bank, Inc, Rochester, Minnesota (13), Linda K. Fraser (D) and Tammi S. Sharpe (C); Center for Organ Recovery and Education, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (11), Robert C. Arffa, MD (D), and Michael A. Tramber (C); Lions Eye Bank of Oregon, Portland (10), Barbara L. Crow (D), Matthew M. Fisher (C), and Chris G. Stoeger (C); Rocky Mountain Lions Eye Bank, Aurora, Colorado (9), Edmund Jacobs (D), Michael P. Filbin (C), James I. Mather (C), Christopher M. McGriff (C), and Eric E. Meinecke (C); Iowa Lions Eye Bank, Iowa City (9), Patricia J. Mason (D), Garret D. Locke (C), and Janice F. Reiter (C); Lions Medical Eye Bank of Eastern Virginia, Inc, Norfolk (7), David E. Korroch (D) and Penelope M. Thomas (C); Southeast Texas Lions Eye Bank, Inc, Galveston (6), Wayne A. Lange (D and C) and Rosemary F. Moore (C); Mid-South Eye Bank for Sight Restoration, Memphis, Tennessee (6), Lee J. Williams (D) and Yvette D. Friedhoff (C); Heartland Lions Eye Bank, Columbia, Missouri (4), Ronald J. Walkenbach, PhD (D), Jennifer E. Glover (C), Brenda A. Kafton (C), and Kraig J. Lage (C); South Carolina Lions Eye Bank, Inc, Charleston (3), Brenda S. Horn (D), H. Tommy Bottoms (C), and Ellen R. Kerns (C); and Utah Lions Eye Bank, Salt Lake City (3), Raymond Jessen, MPH (D and C) and William H. Dennis (C).
Coordinating Center: Roy W. Beck, MD, PhD (principal investigator), Robin L. Gal, MSPH (coordinating center director), Mariya Dontchev, MPH, Craig Kollman, PhD, Dan Raghinaru, MS, Alandra Powe, Katrina J. Ruedy, MSPH, Lee Anne Lester, Heidi J. Strayer, PhD, Shelly T. Mares, Amber Evans, Yazandra A. Parrimon, and Michael Gray, Jaeb Center for Health Research, Tampa, Florida.
Cornea Image Analysis Center: Jonathan H. Lass, MD (medical director), Beth Ann Benetz, MA (technical director), Stephanie Burke, Shannon Edwards, Carmella Gentile, Lori Karpinecz, and Mark Madere, University Hospitals Eye Institute, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.
National Institutes of Health: Maryann Redford, DDS, MPH, and Mary Frances Cotch, PhD, National Eye Institute, Bethesda, Maryland.
Data and Safety Monitoring Committee (DSMC): Marian Fisher, PhD (DSMC Chair), William Bourne, MD, Maryann Redford, DDS, MPH, Rabbi Samuel Fishman, Gary Foulks, MD, and David C. Musch, PhD, MPH.
Steering Committee: Edward J. Holland, MD (study cochairperson, 1999 to present), Mark J. Mannis, MD (study cochairperson, 1999 to present), Mary Frances Cotch, PhD (1999-2001), Steven Dunn, MD (2001-2002), Ellen Heck, MS, MA (1999-2000), Florence Johnston (2000-2001, 2002-2004), Jonathan H. Lass, MD (1999 to present), Thomas Lindquist, MD, PhD (2000-2001), Monty M. Montoya, MBA (2004 to present), Maryann Redford, DDS, MPH (2001 to present), Alan Sugar, MD (2004 to present), Joel Sugar, MD (1999-2000), and Jason Woody (2001-2002).