Numerous case reports have suggested that the recent use of moxifloxacin may lead to uveitis. This epidemiologic study is, to our knowledge, the first to explore the relationship between oral moxifloxacin hydrochloride use and uveitis.
We conducted a case-control study within a cohort of men aged 40 to 85 years followed up from January 2001 through December 2011. All cases with a new diagnosis of uveitis were identified. For each case, 10 control subjects were matched by age, cohort entry date, and follow-up duration. For identified uveitis cases, current use of moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, or ciprofloxacin hydrochloride was compared with nonuse. Rate ratios were adjusted for potential confounding variables. We identified 13 313 uveitis cases and 133 130 corresponding controls. Compared with nonusers of fluoroquinolones, current first-time users of moxifloxacin demonstrated the highest risk for uveitis (adjusted rate ratio, 2.98 [95% CI, 1.80-4.94]). Current first-time users of ciprofloxacin (adjusted rate ratio, 1.96 [95% CI, 1.56-2.47]) showed an increased risk for uveitis, while current first-time users of levofloxacin (adjusted rate ratio, 1.26 [95% CI, 0.90-1.77]) did not show a significant association with uveitis.
Conclusion and Relevance
Current use of moxifloxacin or ciprofloxacin appears to increase the risk for uveitis. A statistically significant association of current first-time use of levofloxacin with uveitis could not be identified. Levofloxacin may pose the least risk for uveitis compared with moxifloxacin and ciprofloxacin.