Submitted for Publication: June 6, 2014; final revision received August 29, 2014; accepted September 5, 2014.
Published Online: October 23, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2014.4252.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Gangnon.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Lee, B. E. K. Klein, Iyengar, Sivakumaran, R. Klein.
Statistical analysis: Gangnon, Lee, Iyengar.
Obtained funding: Gangnon, B. E. K. Klein, Iyengar, R. Klein.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Sivakumaran.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest, and Dr Gangnon reports grants from the National Eye Institute during the conduct of this study, and Drs R. Klein and B. E. K. Klein report grants from the National Eye Institute and from Research to Prevent Blindness during the conduct of this study. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: The National Institutes of Health (grant EY06594 to R. Klein and B. E. K. Klein) provided funding for the entire study, including collection and analyses of data; further support for data analyses was provided by an unrestricted grant from Research to Prevent Blindness, New York, New York.
Role of the Funders/Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; management or interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily reflect the official views of the National Eye Institute or the National Institutes of Health.
Previous Presentation: This paper was presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology; May 8, 2014; Orlando, Florida.