Submitted for Publication: August 28, 2014; final revision received October 16, 2014; accepted October 2, 2014.
Published Online: December 11, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2014.5103.
Study concept and design: Stein, Gupta, Lee, Smith, Douglas.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Stein, Childers, Gupta, Talwar, Nan, Smith, Douglas.
Drafting of the manuscript: Stein, Gupta, Nan, Douglas.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Childers, Gupta, Talwar, Lee, Smith, Douglas.
Statistical analysis: Childers, Talwar, Nan, Douglas.
Obtained funding: Smith, Douglas.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Stein, Smith.
Study supervision: Gupta, Lee, Smith, Douglas.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by the National Eye Institute K23 Mentored Clinician Scientist Award (grant 1K23EY019511 to Dr Stein); the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Foundation; grants EY08976, EY011708, DK063121, EY016339, EY021197, and EY007003 to Drs Smith and Douglas; Research to Prevent Blindness; and the Bell Charitable Foundation.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders/sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.