Submitted for Publication: July 8, 2014; final revision received November 13, 2014; accepted November 13, 2014.
Published Online: January 29, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2014.5622.
Study concept and design: Leske, Holmes.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Leske, Holmes.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: All authors.
Obtained funding: Holmes.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Leske, Holmes.
Study supervision: Holmes.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: The study was supported by grants EY018810 (Dr Holmes), EY024333 (Dr Holmes), and EY011751 (Jaeb Center for Health Research) from the National Institutes of Health, Research to Prevent Blindness (Dr Holmes as the Olga Keith Weiss Scholar and an unrestricted grant to the Department of Ophthalmology, Mayo Clinic), and the Mayo Foundation.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Previous Presentation: This study was presented in part at the Association for Vision in Research and Ophthalmology Annual Meeting; May 9, 2012; Fort Lauderdale, Florida.
Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group: Clinical sites are listed in order by number of subjects enrolled in the studies. Personnel are listed as primary investigator (PI), investigator (I), and coordinator (C). Tomball, TX—Houston Eye Associates: Aaron Miller (PI), Jorie Jackson (C); West Des Moines, IA—Wolfe Clinic: Donny Suh (PI), Susan Hayes (C); Rockville, MD—Stephen R. Glaser, MD, PC: Stephen Glaser (PI), Monica Pacheco (I), Laura Graham (C); Houston, TX—Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children’s Hospital—Department of Ophthalmology: Evelyn Paysse (PI), Kimberly Yen (I), Mohamed Hussein (I), Paul Steinkuller (I), David Coats (I), Lingkun Kong (C); Nashville TN—Vanderbilt Eye Center: Sean Donahue (PI), David Morrison (I), Lori Ann Kehler (I), Robert Estes (I), Lisa Fraine (C); Salt Lake City, UT—Rocky Mountain Eye Care Associates: David Petersen (PI), J. McMurtrey (C); Erie, PA—Pediatric Ophthalmology of Erie: Nicholas Sala (PI), Jeanine Romeo (C): Norfolk, VA—Eastern Virginia Medical School: Earl Crouch (PI), Earl Crouch III (I), Gaylord Ventura (C); Rochester MN—Mayo Clinic: Jonathan Holmes (PI), Brian Mohney (I), Tomohiko Yamada (I), David A. Leske (C), Sarah Hatt (C), Rebecca Nielsen (C), Laura Liebermann; Montreal, Quebec, Canada—Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine: Rosanne Superstein (PI), Caroline Belanger (I), Nicole Fallaha (I), Maryse Thibeault (C); Chicago Ridge, IL—The Eye Specialists Center, LLC: Benjamin Ticho (PI), Alexander Khammar (I), Megan Allen (I), Deborah Clausius (C); Cranberry Township, PA—Everett and Hurite Ophthalmic Association: Darren Hoover (PI), Pamela Huston (C); Durham, NC—Duke University Eye Center: Laura Enyedi (PI), David Wallace (I), Tammy Yanovitch (I), Sarah Jones (C); Lancaster, PA—Family Eye Group: David Silbert (PI), Noelle Matta (C); Winston-Salem, NC—Wake Forest University: Richard Weaver (PI), Eric Hein (I), Lori Cooke (C); Atlanta, GA—The Emory Eye Center: Scott Lambert (PI), Phoebe Lenhart (I), Amy Hutchinson (I), Judy Brower (C); Birmingham, AL—University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Optometry: Robert Rutstein (PI), Wendy Marsh-Tootle (I), Katherine Weise (I), Marcela Frazier (I), Ross Roegner (C); Fullerton, CA—Southern California College of Optometry: Susan Cotter (PI), Angela Chen (I), Carmen Barnhardt (I), Kristine Huang (I), Paula Handford (I), Reena Patel (I), Catherine Heyman (I), Raymond Chu (I), Lernik Mesropian (I), Susan Parker (C); Miami, FL—Bascom Palmer Eye Institute: Susanna Tamkins (PI); Albuquerque, NM—Children’s Eye Center of New Mexico: Todd Goldblum (PI), Kenneth Adams (I), Angela Alfaro (C); Concord, NH—Concord Eye Care PC: Christie Morse (PI), Maynard Wheeler (I), Melanie Christian (C); Minneapolis, MN—University of Minnesota: C. Gail Summers (PI), Jill Anderson (I), Erick Bothun (I), Inge De Becker (I), Sarah Downes (I), Ann Holleschau (C); Gainesville, FL—University of Florida Shands Hospital: Nausheen Khuddus (PI), Tammy Price (C); Chicago, IL—Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago: Bahram Rahmani (PI), Hawke Yoon (I), Yana Kiesau (I), Aaliyah Hamidullah (C); Durham, NC—North Carolina Eye, Ear, & Throat: Joan Roberts (PI), Heather Klem (C); Kingston, Ontario, Canada—Queen’s University Department of Ophthalmology: Brian Arthur (PI), Lesley MacSween (C); Calgary, Alberta, Canada—Alberta Children’s Hospital: William Astle (PI), Kenneth Romanchuk (I), Emi Sanders (C); New York, NY—State University of New York, College of Optometry; Robert Duckman (PI), Marilyn Vricella (I), Sara Meeder (C); Lisle, IL—Progressive Eye Care: Patricia Davis (PI), Indre Rudaitis (C); Charleston, SC—Medical University of South Carolina, Storm Eye Institute: Mae Peterseim (I), Ronald Teed (I), Carol Bradham (C); Baltimore, MD—Greater Baltimore Medical Center; Mary Louise Collins (PI), Allison Jensen (I), Maureen Flanagan (C); Portland, OR—Casey Eye Institute: Daniel Karr (PI), Allison Summers (I), Ann Stout (I), Paula Rauch (C); Chicago, IL—Illinois College of Optometry: Yi Pang (PI), Megan Allen (I), Anesu Mvududu (C); Aberdeen, NC—Family Eye Care of the Carolinas: Michael Bartiss (PI), Tennille McGaw (C); Cleveland, OH—Rainbow Babies & Children’s Hospital Department of Ophthalmology: Faruk Ogre (PI), Beth Colon (C); Philadelphia, PA—Salus University/Pennsylvania College of Optometry: Mitchell Scheiman (PI), Karen Pollack (C); Boston, MA—Boston Medical Center: Jean Ramsey (PI), Stephen Christiansen (I), Elise Harb (I), Vanessa Vazquez (C); Houston, TX—University of Houston College Optometry: Ruth E. Manny (PI), Karen D. Fern (I), Catherine McDaniel (I), Heather Anderson (I), Joan Do (C); Kansas City, MO—Children’s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics: Adriana Grigorian (I), Rebecca Dent (C); Bronx, NY—Montefiore Medical Center: Ilana Friedman (PI), Evelyn Koestenblatt (C); Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada—Izaak Walton Killam Health Centre: G. Robert LaRoche (PI), Stephen Van Iderstine (C); Baltimore, MD—Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute, John Hopkins University: Michael X. Repka (PI), Hee-Jung Park (I), Xiaonong Liu (C), Alex Christoff (C); Providence, RI—Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Associates: David Tien (PI), Samantha Garner (C); Portland, OR—Pacific University College of Optometry: Richard London (PI), Jayne Silver (C); Bloomington, IN—Indiana School of Optometry: Don Lyon (PI), Tawna Roberts (I), Vivian Wong (I), Kristy Dunlap (C); Rochester, NY—University of Rochester Eye Institute: Matthew Gearinger (PI), Peter MacDowell (C); Sacramento, CA—University of California Davis, Department of Ophthalmology: Mary O’Hara (PI), Nandini Gandhi (C); Cleveland OH—Cole Eye Institute: Elias Traboulsi (PI), Paul Rychwalski (I), Susan Crowe (C); Columbia, SC—University of South Carolina School of Medicine: Edward Cheeseman (PI), Michelle Bass (C); Spokane, WA—Spokane Eye Clinic: Jeffery Colburn (PI), Eileen Dittman (C); Iowa City, IA—University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics: Susannah Longmuir (PI), Wanda Ottar Pfeifer (C); Indianapolis, IN—Indiana University Medical Center: Daniel Neely (PI), Michele Whitaker (C); Columbus, OH—The Ohio State University: Marjean Kulp (PI), Andrew Toole (I), Tamara Oechslin (I), Freda Dallas (C), Nancy Stevens (C); Madison, WI—University of Wisconsin, University Station: Yasmin Bradfield (PI), Barbara Soderling (C); Boston, MA—Tufts Medical Center Inc: Mitchell Strominger (PI), Shelley Klein (C); Seattle, WA—Seattle Children’s Hospital: Erin Herlihy (PI), Jennifer Brady (C); San Diego, CA—Scripps Clinic: Gregory Ostrow (PI), Laura Kirkeby (C); New York, NY—Mount Sinai School of Medicine: Tamiesha Frempong (PI), Dipali Dave (C); Los Angeles, CA—Jules Stein Eye Institute at the University of California, Los Angeles: Stacy Pineles (PI), Marianne Esguerra (C); Poland, OH—Eye Care Associates Inc: Sergul Erzurum (PI), Diana McOwen (C); Philadelphia, PA—Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia: Brian Forbes (PI), Gil Binenbaum (I), Karen Karp (C); Waterbury, CT—Eye Care Group PC: Tara Cronin (I), Cheryl Capobianco (C); Grand Rapids, MI—Pediatric Ophthalmology PC: Robert Peters (I), Jan Hilbrands (C); Sharon, MA—Daniel M. Laby, MD: Daniel Laby (PI), Heidi Martin (C); Fort Lauderdale, FL—Nova Southeastern University College of Optometry, The Eye Institute: Jacqueline Rodena (I), Annette Bade (C); Buffalo, NY—Ross Eye Institute, University of Buffalo Medical School, Department of Ophthalmology: Airaj Fasiuddin (PI), Blair Spencer (C); Boston, MA—Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates: Justin Smith (PI), Mei Mellott (I), Troy Kieser (C).
PEDIG Coordinating Center: Raymond T. Kraker, Roy W. Beck, Christina M. Cagnina-Morales, Danielle L. Chandler, Laura E. Clark, Chelsea Miano, Quayleen Donahue, Brooke P. Fimbel, Nicole C. Foster, Elizabeth L. Lazar, Stephanie V. Lee, B. Michele Melia, Diana E. Rojas.
Intermittent Exotropia Study Planning Committee: Jonathan M. Holmes, (planning committee chair), Sean Donahue (protocol chair, Intermittent Exotropia Study 1), Susan A. Cotter (protocol cochair, Intermittent Exotropia Study 2), Brian G. Mohney (protocol cochair, Intermittent Exotropia Study 2), Roy W. Beck, Eileen E. Birch, Danielle L. Chandler, Stephen P. Christiansen, Sarah R. Hatt, Raymond T. Kraker, David A. Leske, Michele Melia, Mary O’Hara, Yi Pang, Michael X. Repka. Kenneth Romanchuck, Susanna M. Tamkins, David K. Wallace, David T. Wheeler.
Strabismus Steering Committee: Eileen E. Birch, Danielle L. Chandler, Stephen P. Christiansen, Susan A. Cotter, Sean Donahue, Caroline C. Fang (2011-2012), Sarah R. Hatt, Jonathan M. Holmes, Darren L. Hoover, Raymond T. Kraker, Elizabeth L. Lazar, Ryan McMurtrey (2011-2012), Michele Melia, Brian G. Mohney, Michael X. Repka, Mitchell M. Scheiman, Susanna M. Tamkins.