Published Online: February 19, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2015.6.
Study concept and design: Wallace, Lazar, Crouch, Kraker, Tamkins.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Wallace, Lazar, Tamkins.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Lazar, Crouch, Hoover, Kraker, Tamkins.
Statistical analysis: Wallace, Lazar, Kraker.
Obtained funding: Wallace, Kraker.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Crouch, Hoover, Kraker, Tamkins.
Study supervision: Crouch, Kraker.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported through a cooperative agreement from the National Eye Institute of the National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services (grants EY011751 and EY018810).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding source had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Previous Presentation: This study was presented in part at the annual meeting of the Association for Vision in Research and Ophthalmology; May 7, 2013; Seattle, Washington.
Clinical Sites: The following PEDIG members participated in the study and are listed by clinical site. Sites are listed in order by number of subjects enrolled into the run-in phase and number randomized (number in run-in/number randomized). Personnel are listed as (I) for Investigator, (C) for Coordinator, or (E) for Visual Acuity Examiner. *Center received support utilized for this project from an unrestricted grant from Research to Prevent Blindness Inc, New York, New York. ** Center received support utilized for this project from the UK National Institute for Health Research, through the Northumberland, Tyne and Wear Comprehensive Local Research Network. *** Center received support utilized for this project from the Ohio Lions Eye Research Fund.
Miami, FL—Bascom Palmer Eye Institute (38/10): Susanna M. Tamkins (I), Mariana Nunez (C), Courtney E. Ewert (E), Lernik X. Mesropian (E), Mallika X. Patel (E), Raynold Crespo (E), Priya X. Joshi (E), Eva M. Olivares (E), Marlon Parra (E), Anna S. Yi (E); Norfolk, VA—Eastern Virginia Medical School (32/11): Earl R. Crouch (I), Earl R. Crouch III (I), Gaylord G. Ventura (C), Cynthia M. Carlton (E); West Des Moines, IA—Wolfe Eye Clinic (32/20): Donny W. Suh (I), Jody L. Jackson (C), Rhonda J. Countryman (E), Shannon L. Craig (E), Lisa M. Fergus (E), Susan K. Hayes (E), Autumn Parrino (E); Cranberry, PA—Everett and Hurite Ophthalmic Association (30/5): Darren L. Hoover (I), Pamela A. Huston (C), Christine J. Deifel (E), Pamela M. Racan (E), Jasbir K. Sayal (E), Kari E. Soros (E); Columbus, OH—Pediatric Ophthalmology Associates Inc. (22/12):*** Don L. Bremer (I), David L. Rogers (I), Cybil M. Cassady (I), Gary L. Rogers (I), Richard P. Golden (I), Rae R. Fellows (C), Rich E. Cox (E), Laura J. Shenberger (E), Angela R. Young (E), Lisa J. Vanover (E), Michelle L. Hurst (E), Meghan C. McMillin (E), Amy J. Wagner (E); Fullerton, CA—Southern California College of Optometry (22/13): Susan A. Cotter (I), Angela M. Chen (I), Lisa M. Edwards (I), Paula A. Handford (I), Raymond H. Chu (I), Catherine L. Heyman (I), Sue M. Parker (C), Carmen N. Barnhardt (E), Kristine Huang (E); Rockville, MD—Stephen R. Glaser, M.D., P.C. (16/7): Stephen R. Glaser (I), Monica M. Pacheco (I), Laura L. Graham (C), Markita G. Miller (E), Noga Senderowitsch (E), Aliza C. Shabanowitz (E); Erie, PA—Pediatric Ophthalmology of Erie (14/8): Nicholas A. Sala (I), Jeanine M. Romeo (C), Rhonda M. Hodde (E), Cindy E. Tanner (E), Veda L. Zeto (E); Salt Lake, City UT—Rocky Mountain Eye Care Associates (14/8): David B. Petersen (I), J. R. McMurtrey (C); Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom—Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (10/4:)** Michael P. Clarke (I), Christine J. Powell (C), Laura C. Crawford (E); Boise, ID—St. Luke’s Hospital (9/4): Katherine A. Lee (I), Bonita R. Schweinler (C), Larry W. Plum (E), Derek Beck (E); Concord, NH—Concord Eye Care P.C. (8/4):Christie L. Morse (I), Melanie L. Christian (C), Caroline C. Fang (E), Virginia X. Karlsson (E); Colorado Springs, CO—The Children’s Eye Center (6/6): Dave H. Lee (I), Kelly A. Martinez (E), Colleen M. Schwanz (E), Amanda H. Williams (E), Maria M. Busemeyer (E); Dallas, TX—Pediatric Ophthalmology, P.A. and the Center for Adult Strabismus (6/4): Cynthia L. Beauchamp (I), David R. Stager (I), Angela X. Goodloe (C), Jennifer A. Whalen (E); Durham, NC—Duke University Eye Center (6/2): Laura B. Enyedi (I), David K. Wallace (I), Terri L. Young (I), Sarah K. Jones (C), Cassandra W. Headen (E), Courtney E. Wilkins (E); Birmingham, AL—University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Optometry (6/4): Robert P. Rutstein (I), Marcela Frazier (I), Katherine K. Weise (I), Ross B. Roegner (C), Michael P. Hill (E), Kristine T. Hopkins (E), Wendy L. Marsh-Tootle (E); Schaumburg, IL—Advanced Vision Center (6/4): Ingryd J. Lorenzana (I), Claudia I. Ortiz (C), Yesenia Meza (E); Chicago Ridge, IL—The Eye Specialists Center, L.L.C. (5/3): Benjamin H. Ticho (I), Deborah A. Clausius (C), Megan Allen (E), Sharon L. Giers (E), Lindsay A. Horan (E); Durham, NC—North Carolina Eye, Ear, Nose, & Throat (5/3): Joan T. Roberts (I), Heather M. Klem (C), Marguerite J. Sullivan (E), Lynelle G. Perez (E); Cleveland, OH—Cole Eye Institute (5/4:)* Elias Traboulsi (I), Paul J. Rychwalski (I), Susan W. Crowe (C), Rachael Briggs (E), Angela M. Borer (E); Baltimore, MD—Greater Baltimore Medical Center (4/4): Mary Louise Z. Collins (I), Allison A. Jensen (I), Maureen A. Flanagan (C), Jennifer E. Lambert (E), Dorotea R. Maranto (E); Memphis, TN—Southern College of Optometry (4/0): Janette D. Dumas (I), Marc B. Taub (I), Kelly D. Dasinger (C); Arnold, MD—Ophthalmology Associates of Greater Annapolis (4/1): John M. Avallone (I), Charlene R. Bryant (C), Wanda E. Peyton (E); Lisle, IL—Progressive Eye Care (4/3): Patricia L. Davis (I), Indre M. Rudaitis (E), Charita L. Smith (E), Sarah J. Velazquez (E), Carrie S. Bloomquist (E); Tomball, TX—Houston Eye Associates (4/0): Aaron M. Miller (I), Jorie L. Jackson (C), Luis Arguijo (E), Suzanne S. LaRiviere (E); Houston, TX—Texas Children’s Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology (3/2): Evelyn A. Paysse (I), David K. Coats (I), Lingkun X. Kong (C), Paul G. Steinkuller (E); Lancaster, PA—Family Eye Group (3/1): David I. Silbert (I), Noelle S. Matta (C), Darlene R. Crick (E); Wilmette, IL—Pediatric Eye Associates (3/1): Deborah R. Fishman (I), JoAnn Spieker (C), Aliza Julian (E); Portland, OR—Casey Eye Institute (3/0): Daniel J. Karr (I), Allison I. Summers (I), Paula K. Rauch (C), Yelena M. Bubnoz (E), Albert Romo (E); Columbus, OH—The Ohio State University (3/0): Marjean T. Kulp (I), Freda D. Dallas (C); Portland, OR—Pacific University College of Optometry (3/2): Richard London (I), James J. Kundart (I), Jayne L. Silver (C), Tonya M. Tira (E); Kansas City, MO—Children’s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics (3/1): Amy L. Langford (I), Rebecca J. Dent (C), Amy R. Sullivan (E); San Francisco, CA—University of California, San Francisco Department of Ophthalmology (3/1):* Tina Rutar (I), Alejandra de Alba Campomanes (I), Patricia W. Tam (C); Silverdale, WA—Jason C. Cheung, M.D., PS (3/1): Melissa L. Rice (I), Jason C. Cheung (I), Tiffany M. Parypa (C), Jacque J. Ferro (E), Andria E. Goddard (E); Salt Lake City, UT—University of Utah Health Care, Moran Eye Center (2/1): Robert O. Hoffman (I), Marielle P. Young (I), Scott A. Larson (I), Elisa M. Robertson (C), Jason K. Taylor (E); Philadelphia, PA—Salus University/Pennsylvania College of Optometry (2/1): Mitchell M. Scheiman (I), Karen E. Pollack (C), Elise B. Ciner (E); Marlton, NJ—Michael F. Gallaway, O.D. (2/1): Michael F. Gallaway (I), Debbie L. Killion (C), Beth Zlock (E); Bloomington, IN—Indiana University School of Optometry (2/1): Don W. Lyon (I), Vivian M. Wong (I), Kristy M. Dunlap (C), Tawna L. Roberts (E); Lincoln, NE—Eye Surgical Associates (2/1): Donald P. Sauberan (I), Jody C. Hemberger (C), Gail Walker (E), Jenni A. Craf, (E); Chattanooga, TN—Pediatric Eye Specialists (2/0): Edward A. Petersen (I), Zachary S. McCarty (I), Charla H. Petersen (C), Amie Jenkins (E); Boston, MA—Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates (2/1): Justin B. Smith (I), Mei L. Mellott (I), Troy L. Kieser (C), Kate A. Palitsch (E); Baltimore, MD—Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute, John Hopkins University (1/0):* Michael X. Repka (I), Alex Christoff (C), Xiaonong Liu (C), Carole R. Goodman (E); Calgary, Alberta, Canada—Alberta Children’s Hospital (1/1): William F. Astle (I), Emi N. Sanders (C), Heather N. Sandusky (E); Rochester, MN—Mayo Clinic (1/1):* Jonathan M. Holmes (I), Tomohiko Yamada (I), Rebecca A. Nielsen (C), Debbie M. Priebe (E), Janet L. Westergaard (E); St. Louis, MO—St. Louis Children’s Hospital Eye Center (1/1): James R. Hoekel (I), Marlo L. Galli (C), Tracey Fast (E); Grand Rapids, MI—Pediatric Ophthalmology, P.C. (1/1): Patrick J. Droste (I), Robert J. Peters (I), Jan Hilbrands (C), Misha K. Mennega (E); Chicago IL—Illinois College of Optometry (1/1): Yi Pang (I), Megan Allen (I), Anesu H. Mvududu (C); Albuquerque, NM—Children’s Eye Center of New Mexico (1/1): Todd A. Goldblum (I), Angela Alfaro (C), Chastity R. Escobedo (E); Wilmington, DE—Delaware Vision Academy, L.L.C. (1/1): Don D. Blackburn (I), Tracy Tunis (C), Florence Greene (E); Wilmington, NC—Eye Associates of Wilington, P.A. (1/1): David A. Johnson (I), Kelly L. Moulton (C), Kellie Drake (E); New Haven, CT—Yale School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science (1/1): Jennifer A. Galvin (I), Daniel J. Salchow (I), Margaret B. Therriault (C).
PEDIG Coordinating Center: Raymond T. Kraker, Roy W. Beck, Katie R. Aylor, Christina M. Cagnina-Morales, Danielle L. Chandler, Laura E. Clark, Quayleen Donahue, Brooke P. Fimbel, Nicole C. Foster, James E. Hoepner, Curtis R. Koh, Elizabeth L. Lazar, Stephanie V. Lee, B. Michele Melia, Diana E. Rojas.
National Eye Institute—Bethesda, MD: Donald F. Everett.
Amblyopia Treatment Study Steering Committee: Eileen E. Birch, Susan A. Cotter, Donald F. Everett, Nicole C. Foster, Jonathan M. Holmes, Raymond T. Kraker, Marjean T. Kulp, Elizabeth L. Lazar, David B. Petersen, Michael X. Repka, Gaylord G. Ventura (2011-13), Lisa C. Verderber (2011-12), David K. Wallace.
PEDIG Executive Committee: Jonathan M. Holmes (chair), Darron A. Bacal (2009-10), Roy W. Beck, Eileen E. Birch, Stephen P. Christiansen (2009-10), Susan A. Cotter (2009-Present), Eric R. Crouch III (2010-11), Laura B. Enyedi (2011-13), Donald F. Everett, Darren L. Hoover (2008, 2011-Present), Pamela A. Huston (2009-10), Jorie L. Jackson (2011-12), Raymond T. Kraker, Marjean T. Kulp (2010-12), Aaron M. Miller (2011-12), David G. Morrison (2008-9), David Petersen (2011- Present), Michael X. Repka, David L. Rogers (2011-13), Robert P. Rutstein (2009-10), Nicholas A. Sala (2009-10), Benjamin H. Ticho (2010-11), David K. Wallace (2009-Present).
PEDIG Data and Safety Monitoring Committee: Marie Diener-West (chair), John D. Baker, Barry Davis, Donald F. Everett, Dale L. Phelps, Stephen Poff, Richard A. Saunders, Lawrence Tychsen