Because little is known about factors that may increase the risk for developing thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy, Stein and colleagues identify risk factors associated with the development of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy in a longitudinal cohort study among beneficiaries 18 years or older with newly diagnosed Graves disease who were continuously enrolled in a large nationwide US managed care network and who visited an eye care professional 1 or more times from 2001 to 2009. Of 8404 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 740 (8.8%) developed thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. After adjustment for potential confounders, surgical thyroidectomy, alone or in combination with medical therapy, was associated with a 74% decreased hazard for ophthalmopathy (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.26 [95% CI, 0.12-0.51]) compared with radioactive iodine therapy alone. Statin use (for ≥60 days in the past year vs <60 days or nonuse) was associated with a 40% decreased hazard (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.60 [CI, 0.37-0.93]). The authors noted the need for a prospective study to substantiate these findings and to assess whether statin use or a thyroidectomy may delay or prevent ophthalmopathy in these patients.