Submitted for Publication: October 27, 2014; final revision received January 16, 2015; accepted January 29, 2015.
Published Online: April 2, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2015.0471.
Study concept and design: Zadnik, Sinnott, Kleinstein, Mutti.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Zadnik, Sinnott, Mutti.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Sinnott, Jones-Jordan.
Obtained funding: Zadnik, Cotter, Jones-Jordan, Kleinstein, Manny, Twelker, Mutti.
Administrative, technical, or material support: All authors.
Study supervision: Zadnik, Cotter, Jones-Jordan, Kleinstein, Manny, Twelker, Mutti.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: The Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) Study is supported by grants U10-EY08893 and R21-12273 from the National Eye Institute and the Office of Minority Research/National Institutes of Health, by the Ohio Lions Eye Research Foundation, and by the E. F. Wildermuth Foundation.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: Donald F. Everett, MA, of the National Eye Institute was involved in the design and conduct of the study. The other funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Group Members: The CLEERE Study Group (as of March 2012) includes the following centers and investigators: Sandral Hullett, MD, MPH (principal investigator [PI], 1997-2006), Robert N. Kleinstein, OD, MPH, PhD (coinvestigator, 1997-2006), Janene Sims, OD (optometrist, 1997-2001 and 2004-2006), Raphael Weeks, OD (optometrist, 1999-2006), Sandra Williams (study coordinator, 1999-2006), LeeAndra Calvin (study coordinator, 1997-1999), and Melvin D. Shipp, OD, MPH, DrPH (coinvestigator, 1997-2004) (Franklin Primary Health Center, Inc, Mobile, Alabama); Nina E. Friedman, OD, MS (PI, 1999-2001), Pamela Qualley, MA (study coordinator, 1997-2001), Donald O. Mutti, OD, PhD (PI, 1996-1999), and Karla Zadnik, OD, PhD (optometrist, 1996-2001) (School of Optometry, University of California, Berkeley); Ruth E. Manny, OD, PhD (PI, 1997-2006), Suzanne M. Wickum, OD (optometrist, 1999-2006), Ailene Kim, OD (optometrist, 2003-2006), Bronwen Mathis, OD (optometrist, 2002-2006), Mamie Batres (study coordinator, 2004-2006), Sally Henry (study coordinator, 1997-1998), Janice M. Wensveen, OD, PhD (optometrist, 1997-2001), Connie J. Crossnoe, OD (optometrist, 1997-2003), Stephanie L. Tom, OD (optometrist, 1999-2002), Jennifer A. McLeod (study coordinator, 1998-2004), Julio C. Quiralte (study coordinator, 1998-2005), and Gaby Solis (study coordinator, 2005-2006) (College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas); Susan A. Cotter, OD, MS (PI, 2004-2006; optometrist, 1997-2004), Julie A. Yu, OD (PI, 1997-2004; optometrist, 2005-2006), Raymond J. Chu, OD (optometrist, 2001-2006), Carmen N. Barnhardt, OD, MS (optometrist, 2004-2006), Jessica Chang, OD (optometrist, 2005-2006), Kristine Huang, OD (optometrist, 2005-2006), Rebecca Bridgeford (study coordinator, 2005-2006), Connie Chu, OD (optometrist, 2004-2005), Soonsi Kwon, OD (optometrist, 1998-2004), Gen Lee (study coordinator, 1999-2003), John Lee, OD (optometrist, 2000-2003), Robert J. Lee, OD (optometrist, 1997-2001), Raymond Maeda, OD (optometrist, 1999-2003), Rachael Emerson (study coordinator, 1997-1999); and Tracy Leonhardt (study coordinator, 2003-2004) (Southern California College of Optometry, Marshall B. Ketchum University, Fullerton); and J. Daniel Twelker, OD, PhD (PI, 2000-2010), Mabel Crescioni, DrPh (study coordinator, 2009-2010), Dawn Messer, OD, MPH (optometrist, 2000-2010), Denise Flores (study coordinator, 2000-2007), Rita Bhakta, OD (optometrist, 2000-2004), Katie Garvey, OD (optometrist, 2005-2008), and Amanda Mendez Roberts, OD (optometrist, 2008-2010) (Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Science, University of Arizona, Tucson). Resource centers include the chairperson’s office, College of Optometry, The Ohio State University: Karla Zadnik, OD, PhD (chairperson, 1997-present), and Jodi M. Malone Thatcher, RN (study coordinator, 1997-2012); Videophakometry Reading Center, College of Optometry, The Ohio State University: Donald O. Mutti, OD, PhD (director, 1997-present), Huan Sheng, MD, PhD (reader, 2000-2006), Holly Omlor (reader, 2003-2006), Meliha Rahmani, MPH (reader, 2004-2007), Jaclyn Brickman (reader, 2002-2003), Amy Wang (reader, 2002-2003), Philip Arner (reader, 2002-2004), Samuel Taylor (reader, 2002-2003), Myhanh T. Nguyen, OD, MS (reader, 1998-2001), Terry W. Walker, OD, MS (reader, 1997-2001), and Vidhya Subramanian, MS (reader, 2006-2007); Optometry Coordinating Center, College of Optometry, The Ohio State University: Lisa A. Jones-Jordan, PhD (director, 1997-present), Linda Barrett (data entry operator, 1997-2007), John Hayes, PhD (biostatistician, 2001-2007), G. Lynn Mitchell, MAS (biostatistician, 1998-present), Melvin L. Moeschberger, PhD (consultant, 1997-present), Loraine T. Sinnott, PhD (biostatistician, 2005-present), Pamela Wessel (program coordinator, 2000-present), Julie N. Swartzendruber, MA (program coordinator, 1998-2000), and Austen Tanner (data entry operator, 2008-2010); Project Office, National Eye Institute, Rockville, Maryland: Donald F. Everett, MA; and Executive Committee: Karla Zadnik, OD, PhD (chairperson), Lisa A. Jones-Jordan, PhD, Robert N. Kleinstein, OD, MPH, PhD, Ruth E. Manny, OD, PhD, Donald O. Mutti, OD, PhD, J. Daniel Twelker, OD, PhD, and Susan A. Cotter, OD, MS.