Submitted for Publication: December 17, 2014; final revision received March 19, 2015; accepted March 20, 2015.
Published Online: May 21, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2015.1312.
Study concept and design: Aiello, Arnold-Bush, Baker, Bressler, Glassman, Jampol, Melia.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Aiello, Ayala, Antoszyk, Baker, Bressler, Elman, Glassman, Jampol, Melia, Nielsen, Wolpert.
Drafting of the manuscript: Aiello, Ayala, Arnold-Bush, Glassman, Jampol.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Aiello, Antoszyk, Arnold-Bush, Baker, Bressler, Elman, Jampol, Melia, Nielsen, Wolpert.
Statistical analysis: Ayala, Melia.
Obtained funding: Glassman, Jampol.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Aiello, Arnold-Bush, Bressler, Glassman, Wolpert.
Study supervision: Aiello, Baker, Bressler, Glassman, Melia.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest, and Dr Bressler reports having received grants from the National Institutes of Health during the conduct of this study; Dr Elman reports having received grants from the Jaeb Center for Health Research during the conduct of this study and grants from the Jaeb Center for Health Research and personal fees from Genentech-Roche outside the submitted work; Dr Glassman reports having received grants from the National Institutes of Health during the conduct of this study; Dr Jampol reports having received personal fees from Janssen Pharmaceuticals outside the submitted work; Dr Melia reports having received grants from the National Eye Institute during the conduct of this study; and Dr Nielsen reports having received personal fees from Allergan, Genentech, and Regeneron outside the submitted work.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by a cooperative agreement from the National Eye Institute, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the National Institutes of Health, and the US Department of Health and Human Services (grants EY14231, EY23207, and EY18817).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The National Institutes of Health participated in oversight of the conduct of the study and the review of the manuscript but not directly in the design or conduct of the study, nor in the collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data, nor in the preparation of the manuscript or the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Group Information: The Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network sites are listed in order by number of participants enrolled into the study. The number of participants enrolled is noted in parentheses preceded by the site name and location. Personnel are listed in parentheses as C for coordinator, I for study investigator, P for photographer, and/or V for visual acuity technician.
Wolfe Eye Clinic, West Des Moines, Iowa (96): Jared S. Nielsen (I); David D. Saggau (I); Jeong-Hyeon Sohn (I); Kyle J. Alliman (I); Marianne Parker (C); Susan Hallock (C); Chris Tresnak (C); Bethany George (C); Bailey R. Bennett (P); and Jay Rostvold (P). Retina Research Center, Austin, Texas (89): Brian B. Berger (I); Chirag D. Jhaveri (I); Robert W. Wong (I); Tori Moore (C); Ginger J. Manhart (C); Ivana Gunderson (C, V); Winnie Mendoza (C); Rachel A. Walsh (C); Kristen Davis (C); Christopher C. Stovall (P); and Yong Ren (P). Charlotte Eye, Ear, Nose, and Throat Associates, PA, Charlotte, North Carolina (87): David Browning (I); Andrew N. Antoszyk (I); Sherry L. Fredenberg (C); Angela K. Price (C); Merri F. Walker (C); Ashley A. McClain (C, V); Jenna T. Herby (C); Anna Karow (V); Sarah A. Ennis (V); Loraine M. Clark (P); Donna McClain (P); Michael D. McOwen (P); Lynn Watson (P); and Uma M. Balasubramaniam (P). Joslin Diabetes Center/Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates, Boston, Massachusetts (81): Lloyd Paul Aiello (I); Jennifer K. Sun (I); George S. Sharuk (I); Paul G. Arrigg (I); Paolo S. Silva (I); Christopher Michael Andreoli (I); Corey Westerfeld (I); Deborah K. Schlossman (I); Sabera T. Shah (I); Timothy J. Murtha (I); Hanna Kwak (C); Margaret E. Stockman (C); Ann Kopple (C); Troy Kieser (C); Flor Flores (C); Rita K. Kirby (V); Elizabeth S. Weimann (V); Leila Bestourous (V); and Robert W. Cavicchi (P). University of Florida College of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Jacksonville Health Science Center, Jacksonville (77): Kakarla V. Chalam (I); Sandeep Grover (I); Shailesh K. Gupta (I); and Ghulam Shabbir Hamdani (C). Retinal Consultants of San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas (58): Calvin E. Mein (I); R. Gary Lane (I); Moises A. Chica (I); Sarah Elizabeth Holy (I); Lita Kirschbaum (C); Vanessa D. Martinez (C); and Christopher Sean Wienecke (P). Retina Associates of Sarasota, Venice, Florida (54): Keye Luc Wong (I); John Harley Niffenegger (I); Marianne Cottrill (C); Antoinette Fritsch (C); and Bruce A. Bentsen (C). Retina and Vitreous Associates of Kentucky, Lexington (52): Thomas W. Stone (I); Rick D. Isernhagen (I); John W. Kitchens (I); William J. Wood (I); Diana M. Holcomb (C); Jenny L. Wolfe (C); Michelle Buck (P); and Edward A. Slade (P). Henry Ford Health System, Department of Ophthalmology and Eye Care Services, Detroit, Michigan (47): Paul Andrew Edwards (I); Hua Gao (I); Uday Desai (I); Janet Murphy (C); Mary K. Monk (C); Julianne Hall (C, V); Melanie A. Gutkowski (C); Melina Mazurek (C); and Katie M. Ventimiglia (C). The Retina Institute, St Louis, Missouri (47): Kevin J. Blinder (I); Bradley T. Smith (I); Ginny S. Nobel (C); Rhonda F. Weeks (C); and Erika A. Hoehn (C). The Institute of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Newark, New Jersey (46): Neelakshi Bhagat (I); Catherine Fay (C, V); Tatiana Mikheyeva (P); and Michael Lazar (P). Elman Retina Group, PA, Baltimore, Maryland (45): Michael J. Elman (I); JoAnn Starr (C); Jennifer L. Belz (C); Charlene K. Putzulo (C); Pamela V. Singletary (V); and Teresa Coffey (V). Family Eye Group, Lancaster, Pennsylvania (45): Michael R. Pavlica (I); Noelle S. Matta (C); and Cristina M. Brubaker (P). Casey Eye Institute, Portland, Oregon (45): Andreas K. Lauer (I); Steven T. Bailey (I); Christina J. Flaxel (I); Mitchell Schain (C); Shelley A. Hanel (C); Ann D. Lundquist (C); and Peter N. Steinkamp (P). Sarasota Retina Institute, Sarasota, Florida (45): Melvin C. Chen (I); Waldemar Torres (I); Marc H. Levy (I); Peggy Jelemensky (C); Tara Raphael (V); and Mark Sneath (P). Paducah Retinal Center, Paducah, Kentucky (44): Carl W. Baker (I); Ron H. Tilford (I); Tracey M. Caldwell (C); Lynnette F. Lambert (C); and Tracey R. Martin (V). Wilmer Eye Institute at Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, Maryland (43): Sharon D. Solomon (I); Adrienne Williams Scott (I); Susan Bressler (I); Neil M. Bressler (I); Daniel Finkelstein (I); Lisa K. Levin (C); Mary Frey (C, V); and Ellen R. Arnold (C). University of North Carolina, Kittner Eye Center, Chapel Hill (43): Seema Garg (I); Odette M. Houghton (I); Cassandra J. Barnhart (C); Cynthia Aurrichio (C); Megha Karmalkar (C); Elizabeth L. DuBose (C); and Debra Cantrell (P). John-Kenyon American Eye Institute, New Albany, Indiana (43): Howard S. Lazarus (I); Debra Paige Bunch (C); Liana C. Davis (C); Angela D. Ridge (C); and Jay Moore (P). Retina Associates of Cleveland, Inc, Beachwood, Ohio (42): Michael A. Novak (I); Joseph M. Coney (I); Jerome P. Schartman (I); Llewelyn J. Rao (I); Lawrence J. Singerman (I); David G. Miller (I); Susan C. Rath (C); Larraine Stone (C); Veronica A. Smith (C); John C. DuBois (P); and Gregg A. Greanoff (P). Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio (41): Suber S. Huang (I); Shawn C. Wilker (I); Hillary M. Sedlacek (C); Cherie L. Hornsby (C); Peggy Allchin (V); Kelly A. Sholtis (V); Kathy Carlton (V); Claudia Clow (V); Stacie A. Hrvatin (P); Geoffrey Pankhurst (P); and Mark A. Harrod (P). Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania (41): Ingrid U. Scott (I); Esther M. Bowie (I); Michael E. Gricoski (C, V); Susan M. Chobanoff (C); and Jaime L. Gibson (C). University of Wisconsin–Madison, Department of Ophthalmology/Retina Service, Madison (41): Justin Gottlieb (I); Barbara A. Blodi (I); Michael M. Altaweel (I); Michael S. Ip (I); Kristine A. Dietzman (C); Kathryn F. Burke (C); Barbara H. Soderling (C); Angela M. Wealti (V); and John C. Peterson (P). The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary/Faculty Eye Practice, New York (41): Ronald C. Gentile (I); Estuardo Alfonso Ponce (I); Alex Yang (C, V); Anita Ou (C); and Wanda Carrasquillo-Boyd (P). University of Pennsylvania Scheie Eye Institute, Philadelphia (41): Alexander J. Brucker (I); Sheri Drossner (C); Joan C. DuPont (C); Rebecca Salvo (C); Beth Serpentine (P); Sara Morales (P); Cheryl Devine (P); and Jim M. Berger (P). University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle (40): James L. Kinyoun (I); Gurunadh Atmaram Vemulakonda (I); Susan A. Rath (C); Brad C. Clifton (P); and James D. Leslie (P). Bay Area Retina Associates, Walnut Creek, California (39): Stewart A. Daniels (I); Subhransu K. Ray (I); Craig J. Leong (I); T. Daniel Ting (I); Stacey Touson (C); Shannon R. Earl (C); Fred Hanamoto (P); and Cathy Walker (P). Florida Retina Consultants, Lakeland (38): Scott M. Friedman (I); Kimberly A. Williamson (C); Damanda F. Fagan (C, V); Katrina L. Dawson (C); Karen Sjoblom (C, V); and Allen McKinney (P). Magruder Eye Institute, Orlando, Florida (38): John T. Lehr (I); Elaine Rodriguez-Roman (C); and Eliana Ortega (V). Wake Forest University Eye Center, Winston-Salem, North Carolina (37): Craig Michael Greven (I); Shree K. Kurup (I); M. Madison Slusher (I); Joan Fish (C, V); Cara Everhart (C); Lori N. Cooke (C); and Mark D. Clark (P). Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (36): Judy E. Kim (I); William J. Wirostko (I); Kimberly E. Stepien (I); Dennis P. Han (I); David V. Weinberg (I); Thomas B. Connor (I); Vesper V. Williams (C); Jeanette Graf (C); Krissa L. Packard (C); Tracy L. Kaczanowski (C); and Mara Goldberg (P). Palmetto Retina Center, West Columbia, South Carolina (36): John A. Wells (I); W. Lloyd Clark (I); David L. Johnson (I); Tiffany R. Swinford (C); Peggy D. Miller (C); Mallie M. Taylor (C); Kayla L Henry (C); Ron Petty (P); and Robbin Spivey (P). Carolina Retina Center, Columbia, South Carolina (35): Jeffrey G. Gross (I); Barron C. Fishburne (I); Michael A. Magee (I); Amy M. Flowers (C); Christen Ochieng (C, V); and Riley Stroman (C). Retina Center, PA, Minneapolis, Minnesota (33): Abdhish R. Bhavsar (I); Michael Vaughn Emerson (I); Jacob M. Jones (I); Geoffrey G. Emerson (I); Tracy A. Anderson (C); Angela J. Freihammer (C); Matt D. Peloquin (C); and Keith D. Gehring (C). University of Illinois at Chicago Medical Center, Chicago (32): Jennifer I. Lim (I); Yannek I. Leiderman (I); Felix Y. Chau (I); Marcia Niec (C); Emily R. Workman (C); Yesenia Ovando (V); Tametha Johnson (V); Mark Janowicz (P); and Catherine Carroll (P). Valley Retina Institute, McAllen, Texas (31): Victor Hugo Gonzalez (I); Rohit Adyanthaya (I); Roberto Diaz-Rohena (I); Nehal R. Patel (I); Gabriela Zavala (C); Edna E. Cruz (C); Crystal A. Alvarez (C); Rene Garza (C); and Ruth Iracheta (C). Retinal Consultants of Arizona, Phoenix (31): Karim N. Jamal (I); David T. Goldenberg (I); Sachin Mehta (I); Jaime R. Gaitan (I); Edward J. Quinlan (I); Derek Y. Kunimoto (I); Scheleen R. Dickens (C); Mary M. Nelson (C); and Harpreet Kaur (C). Raj K. Maturi, MD, PC, Indianapolis, Indiana (30): Raj K. Maturi (I); Laura A. Bleau (C, V); Carolee K. Novak (C); Thomas Steele (P); and Charlotte Harris (P). University of Rochester, Rochester, New York (25): David Allen DiLoreto (I); Rajeev S. Ramchandran (I); Mina M. Chung (I); George W. O’Gara (C); Valerie M. Davis (C); and Peter MacDowell (C). Retina Group of Florida, Fort Lauderdale (23): Mandeep S. Dhalla (I); Lawrence S. Halperin (I); Jaclyn A. Brady (C); and Monica Hamlin (C). California Retina Consultants, Santa Barbara (23): Dante J. Pieramici (I); Ma’an A. Nasir (I); Alessandro A. Castellarin (I); Sarah Fishbein (C); Jack Giust (C); Jessica C. Basefsky (C); Lisha Wan (C); Melvin D. Rabena (C); Jerry Smith (V); and Matthew Giust (P). Retina and Vitreous of Texas, Houston (12): Joseph A. Khawly (I); H. Michael Lambert (I); Hassan T. Rahman (I); Pam S. Miller (C, V); Debbie Fredrickson (V); Valerie N. Lazarte (V); Colin Blank (P); and Donald K. Lowd (P).
Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network Coordinating Center: Jaeb Center for Health Research, Tampa, Florida (staff as of February 25, 2015): Adam R. Glassman (director and principal investigator), Roy W. Beck (executive director), Talat Almukhtar, Brian B. Dale, Alyssa Baptista, Crystal Connor, Jasmine Conner, Sharon R. Constantine, Kimberly Dowling, Simone S. Dupre, Allison R. Ayala, Meagan L. Huggins, Seidu Inusah, Paula A. Johnson, Nadine LaBell, Brenda L. Loggins, Shannon L. McClellan, Michele Melia, Eureca Battle, Cynthia R. Stockdale, and Danielle Stanley.
Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network Chair: Lee M. Jampol (2013-present) and Neil M. Bressler (2006-2012).
Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network Vice Chairs: Andrew Antoszyk (2014-present) Judy Kim (2015-present), John A. Wells III (2013-present), Carl W. Baker (2011-2013), Susan B. Bressler (2009-2011), Scott Friedman (2009-2012), Ingrid U. Scott (2009-2010), and Jennifer K. Sun (2012-2014).
National Eye Institute: Eleanor Schron (2009-current), Donald F. Everett (2003-2006 and 2007-2009), and Päivi H. Miskala (2006-2007).
Data and Safety Monitoring Committee: John Connett (chair), Gary Abrams, Deborah R. Barnbaum, Harry Flynn, Ruth S. Weinstock, Charles P. Wilkinson, Stephen Wisniewski, Saul Genuth (2006-2013), and Robert Frank (2006-2012).
Executive Committee: Lloyd Paul Aiello (2002-present; chair, 2002-2005), Andrew N. Antoszyk (2009; 2014-present), Carl W. Baker (2009-present), Roy W. Beck (2002-present), Neil M. Bressler (2006-present; chair, 2006-2008), Susan B. Bressler (2009-present), Ronald P. Danis (2004-2014), Matthew D. Davis (2002-present), Michael J. Elman (2006-present; chair, 2009 and 2012), Frederick L. Ferris III (2002-present), Adam R. Glassman (2005-present), Jeffrey G. Gross (2012-present), Glenn J. Jaffe (2012-present), Lee M. Jampol (2012-present; chair, 2013-present), Judy Kim (2015-present), Raj K. Maturi (2009-2011 and 2013-present), Eleanor Schron (2009-present), Jennifer K. Sun (2009-present), and John A. Wells III (2012-present). Prior members: Abdhish Bhavsar (2007-2008 and 2010-2012), Alexander J. Brucker (2009-2011), Kakarla V. Chalam (2009-2011), Donald F. Everett (2002-2009), Joan Fish (2008-2009), Scott Friedman (2007-2013), Joseph Googe Jr (2009-2011), Diana M. Holcomb (2011-2012), Andreas Lauer (2007-2008), Dennis M. Marcus (2011-2012), Ashley McClain (2013); Brandi J. Perez (2013), Ingrid U. Scott (2009-2010), and JoAnn Starr (2009-2011).
Disclaimer: Dr Bressler is the JAMA Ophthalmology Editor but was not involved in the review process or the acceptance of the manuscript.