Submitted for Publication: April 20, 2015; final revision received July 21, 2015; accepted July 26, 2015.
Published Online: September 17, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2015.3335.
Study concept and design: Gichuhi, Sagoo, Burton.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Gichuhi, Macharia, Kabiru, Zindamoyen, Rono, Ollando, Wanyonyi, Wachira, Munene, Onyuma, Weiss, Burton.
Drafting of the manuscript: Gichuhi.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Macharia, Kabiru, Zindamoyen, Rono, Ollando, Wanyonyi, Wachira, Munene, Onyuma, Sagoo, Weiss, Burton.
Statistical analysis: Gichuhi, Weiss, Burton.
Obtained funding: Gichuhi, Burton.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Macharia, Zindamoyen, Rono, Ollando, Wanyonyi, Wachira, Munene, Onyuma, Sagoo.
Study supervision: Zindamoyen, Sagoo, Burton.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: Dr Gichuhi received funding from the British Council for Prevention of Blindness fellowship program. Dr Burton is supported by the Wellcome Trust (grant 098481/Z/12/Z).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding organizations had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.