0
We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Original Investigation |

Current and Future Status of Diversity in Ophthalmologist Workforce

Imam M. Xierali, PhD1; Marc A. Nivet, EdD1; M. Roy Wilson, MD2
[+] Author Affiliations
1Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC
2Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan
JAMA Ophthalmol. 2016;134(9):1016-1023. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2016.2257.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Importance  Increasing the level of diversity among ophthalmologists may help reduce disparities in eye care.

Objective  To assess the current and future status of diversity among ophthalmologists in the workforce by sex, race, and ethnicity in the context of the available number of medical students in the United States.

Design, Setting, and Participants  Data from the Association of American Medical Colleges, the American Medical Association, and US Census were used to evaluate the differences and trends in diversity among ophthalmologists, all full-time faculty except ophthalmology, ophthalmology faculty, ophthalmology residents, medical school students, and the US population between 2005 and 2015. For 2014, associations of sex, race, and ethnicity with physician practice locations were assessed.

Main Outcomes and Measures  Proportions of ophthalmologists stratified by sex, race, and ethnicity between 2005 and 2015.

Results  Women and minority groups traditionally underrepresented in medicine (URM)—black, Hispanic, American Indian, Alaskan Native, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander—were underrepresented as practicing ophthalmologists (22.7% and 6%, respectively), ophthalmology faculty (35.1% and 5.7%, respectively), and ophthalmology residents (44.3% and 7.7%, respectively), compared with the US population (50.8% and 30.7%, respectively). During the past decade, there had been a modest increase in the proportion of female practicing ophthalmologists who graduated from US medical schools in 1980 or later (from 23.8% to 27.1%; P < .001); however, no increase in URM ophthalmologists was identified (from 7.2% to 7.2%; P = .90). Residents showed a similar pattern, with an increase in the proportion of female residents (from 35.6% to 44.3%; P = .001) and a slight decrease in the proportion of URM residents (from 8.7% to 7.7%; P = .04). The proportion of URM groups among ophthalmology faculty also slightly decreased during the study period (from 6.2% to 5.7%; P = .01). However, a higher proportion of URM ophthalmologists practiced in medically underserved areas (P < .001).

Conclusions and Relevance  Women and URM groups remain underrepresented in the ophthalmologist workforce despite an available pool of medical students. Given the prevalent racial and ethnic disparities in eye care and an increasingly diverse society, future research and training efforts that increase the level of diversity among medical students and residents seems warranted.

Figures in this Article

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Figures

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 1.
Proportions of Ophthalmologists With Direct Patient Care Stratified by Sex, Race, and Ethnicity From 2005 Through 2015

The data source is the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile, 2005-2015 (December 31 snapshot), and the data are from ophthalmologists with direct patient care who graduated from US medical schools in 1980 or later. URM indicates underrepresented in medicine.

Graphic Jump Location
Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 2.
Proportions of Ophthalmology Residents Stratified by Sex, Race, and Ethnicity From 2005 Through 2014

The data source is GME Track, 2005-2014 (December 31 snapshot). Please note that the 2015 data are not available. URM indicates underrepresented in medicine.

Graphic Jump Location
Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 3.
Proportions of Ophthalmology Faculty Members Stratified by Sex, Race, and Ethnicity From 2005 Through 2015

The data source is the Association of American Medical Colleges Faculty Roster, 2005-2015 (December 31 snapshot). URM indicates underrepresented in medicine.

Graphic Jump Location

Tables

References

Correspondence

CME
Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.

Multimedia

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

376 Views
0 Citations
×

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Articles Related By Topic
Related Collections
Jobs
brightcove.createExperiences();