To derive a reliable estimate of the frequency of pupil involvement in patients with diabetes-associated oculomotor nerve palsy.
Patients and Methods
In this prospective study, standardized enrollment criteria were employed to identify 26 consecutive patients with diabetes-associated oculomotor nerve palsy who were evaluated in a referral-based, outpatient neuro-ophthalmology practice. A pupil ruler accurate to within 0.5 mm was used to measure pupil diameters using a standardized procedure. The degree of anisocoria, if present, was recorded at each office visit until the ophthalmoplegia had resolved. Descriptive statistics were used to identify the frequency and characteristics of pupil involvement.
Internal ophthalmoplegia occurred in 10 (38%) of 26 patients. The size of the anisocoria was 1 mm or less in most patients. None of the patients had a fully dilated unreactive pupil.
Pupil involvement in patients with diabetes-associated oculomotor nerve palsy occurs more often than has been previously recognized, although the degree of anisocoria in any 1 patient is usually only 1 mm or less. Some characteristics of the internal ophthalmoplegia may help to distinguish diabetic ophthalmoplegia from injury of the oculomotor nerve caused by aneurysmal compression.