To describe retinal and optic disc atrophy and a progressive decrease of visual function in 2 Japanese brothers. Both had a mutation in the CACNA1F gene, the causative gene of incomplete congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB).
We studied observational case reports and performed comprehensive ophthalmologic examinations including best-corrected visual acuity, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, fundus photography, and electroretinography. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood, and all 48 exons of the CACNA1F gene were directly sequenced.
The 2 brothers had retinal and optic disc atrophy and a progressive reduction of visual acuity with increasing age. Although these clinical features are not typical of previous patients with incomplete CSNB, both patients had an in-frame mutation with deletion and insertion in exon 4 of the CACNA1F gene. In both patients, the bright-flash, mixed rod-cone electroretinogram had a negative configuration, a characteristic of incomplete CSNB. However, the full-field scotopic and photopic electroretinograms were nonrecordable, indicating severe, diffuse retinal malfunction, which is not typical in incomplete CSNB.
These findings indicate that a mutation of the CACNA1F gene may be associated with retinal and optic disc atrophy with a progressive decline of visual function.
In patients with retinal and optic disc atrophy associated with negative-type electroretinograms, a CACNA1F gene mutation should be considered.