The first element in enhancing our understanding of the supply of eye care providers is to examine the work effort of optometrists in greater detail. At the time of the original study, no published peer-reviewed data existed on the work effort and areas of emphasis of optometric care. After the Eye Care Workforce Study was published, the American Optometric Association (AAO) contracted with Abt Associates (Cambridge, Mass) to conduct an optometric workforce survey and study.6 In a well-designed survey of practicing optometrists, the study reported that optometrists had 113 million total patient visits in 1997, 69 million of which were for routine or well eye care, 25 million for contact lenses, and 2 million for low vision, sports vision, or vision therapy. Medical diagnosis and treatment in 1997 constituted 15 million visits, or just more than 13% of optometric care visits. The study also indicated that visits averaged 25 minutes, with a mean optometrist total work effort of 39 hours of patient contact per week, including paperwork and other office work, and travel time. By comparison, the Eye Care Workforce Study reported that for ophthalmologists 42 hours of direct patient contact per week, defined as visit duration and any direct paperwork or other work arising from that visit, but not travel time and other office work, but did not have an overall mean time per visit; rather, a more complex allocation and modeling was performed by disease group and type of visit (procedural vs evaluative), among other considerations, which was not done in the study by Abt Associates.