To describe the clinical spectrum of fundus manifestations and angiographic and optical coherence tomographic features of dengue-associated maculopathy in a large series.
We reviewed clinical records of patients diagnosed as having dengue maculopathy at the Singapore National Eye Centre between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2005.
We identified 41 patients with serological evidence of dengue fever who had ocular signs and symptoms not attributable to other diseases within 1 month after onset of symptoms of dengue. Seventy-one eyes had maculopathy. Mean best-corrected visual acuity in the affected eye was 20/40 (range, hand motions to 20/20). Intraretinal hemorrhages were seen in 45% of eyes, usually in association with venous sheathing. Fundus fluorescein angiography demonstrated venular occlusion in 25% or arteriolar and/or venular leakage in 3% and 13%, respectively. Yellow subretinal dots were an unusual finding in 28%. Of these, 50% showed corresponding hypofluorescent spots on indocyanine green angiography. Central or paracentral scotomas were observed in 63%. Twenty-eight patients received steroid treatment. Mean visual acuity showed significant improvement between weeks 2 and 4, with an increasing proportion of eyes achieving a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better across time.
Fundus fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography, optical coherence tomography, and visual field testing are useful tools in the diagnosis of dengue maculopathy.