To describe the results of vitrectomy in highly myopic eyes affected by a form of posterior vitreous traction termed myopic traction maculopathy (MTM).
In this retrospective case series, 24 highly myopic eyes with MTM underwent vitrectomy and release of vitreoretinal traction without final fluid/gas exchange. Nine eyes (37.5%) received a combined phacovitrectomy. Mean patient age was 58 years, mean refractive error was −16.8 dioptric spherical equivalent, and preoperative visual acuity ranged from 20/400 to 20/32 (mean, 20/80). Mean follow-up was 29.6 months.
Twenty-three (95.8%) of 24 eyes had complete and stable resolution of MTM after a mean of 4.4 months. Mean visual improvement was 2.5 Snellen lines (range, 0 to 6 lines). Five eyes (20.8%), despite achieving complete retinal flattening, developed a macular hole that did not progress to macular detachment during follow-up.
Vitrectomy without fluid/gas exchange leads to stable resolution of MTM and good visual improvement. Posterior retinal detachment probably precedes macular hole formation in highly myopic eyes.