Very late antigen 1 knockout BLAB/c mice were generated as described previously5 and kindly provided by Biogen Idec (Cambridge, Mass). Seven- to 10-week-old, male, wild-type BALB/c or C57BL6 mice (Taconic Farms, Germantown, NY, or from our own breeding facility) were used in all other experiments. All protocols were approved by the Schepens Eye Research Institute Animal Care and Use Committee, and all animals were treated according to the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology Statement for the Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research. Mice were anesthetized using a mixture of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine (120 and 20 mg per kilogram of body weight, respectively) for each surgical procedure. The following antibodies were used for this study: mouse Gr1–fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated (FITC), mouse Mac1-FITC, mouse CD31-FITC (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, Calif), purified antimouse LYVE-1 (lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1) (a kind gift of David Jackson, PhD, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, United Kingdom14), purified antimouse CD3, rat antimouse CD16/32, Rhodamine-conjugated donkey antirabbit IgG (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), Cy3-conjugated antihamster IgG (Jackson ImmunoResearch Laboratories, Inc, West Grove, Pa). Isotype controls included rat IgG2b-FITC, hamster IgG1, and rabbit serum. Purified VLA-1–blocking antibody (Ha 31/8) and the isotype control antibody (Ha 4/8) were kindly supplied by Biogen Idec. All the other antibodies (except where noted) and isotype-matched controls were purchased from BD PharMingen, San Diego, Calif. For each antibody staining study on whole-mount tissues, 3 to 5 samples were examined. For cross-section studies, multiple sections derived from at least 3 mice were examined. All studies were repeated at least 3 times to confirm the results.