To evaluate visual acuity in eyes with choroidal nevus.
This was an observational case series. Of 3422 consecutive eyes with choroidal nevus, vision loss at 15 years occurred in 2% of eyes with extrafoveolar nevus and in 26% of eyes with subfoveolar nevus, particularly those with overlying retinal pigment epithelial detachment and foveal edema. A retrospective medical record review was conducted, with evaluation of visual acuity at presentation and at final examination. The main outcome measure was visual acuity.
The median visual acuity at presentation was 20/20 for eyes with either extrafoveolar or subfoveolar choroidal nevus. Using Kaplan-Meier estimates, vision loss of 3 or more logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) lines at 5, 10, and 15 years occurred in less than 1%, 1%, and 2% of eyes with extrafoveolar nevus compared with 15%, 20%, and 26% of eyes with subfoveolar choroidal nevus, respectively. By multivariate analysis, factors predictive of visual loss of 3 or more logMAR lines included subfoveolar nevus location (relative risk [RR], 15.52), juxtapapillary nevus location (RR, 4.52), initial visual acuity of 20/50 or worse (RR, 15.40), overlying retinal pigment epithelial detachment (RR, 22.16), and foveal edema (RR, 9.02). Factors predictive of poor final visual acuity of 20/200 or worse included subfoveolar nevus location (RR, 11.32), overlying orange pigment (RR, 3.68), overlying retinal pigment epithelial detachment (RR, 12.80), and foveal edema (RR, 18.72).
Mild vision loss over many years should be anticipated in patients with subfoveolar choroidal nevus, particularly those with overlying retinal pigment epithelial detachment, orange pigment, and foveal edema.