We retrospectively reviewed 55 eyes of 55 consecutive patients with AMD in whom full macular translocation surgery with CNV extraction was performed at 10 surgical sites between January 15, 1997, and July 28, 2005. In 15 of these patients, surgery was performed after verteporfin PDT (n = 4), triamcinolone monotherapy (n = 5), or PDT–triamcinolone combination therapy (n = 6). Clinical characteristics of the patients before CNV excision are summarized in the Table. Therapy options, including observation, PDT treatment or re-treatment, conventional thermal laser photocoagulation, intravitreal triamcinolone injection, and full macular translocation with 360° retinotomy, were discussed with each patient. Surgical intervention and removal of CNV were offered when (1) visual acuity was less than 20/200 (the minimum visual acuity at which the first PDT is recommended according to the Treatment of Age-Related Macular Degeneration With Photodynamic Therapy Investigation2,3); (2) visual deterioration progressed after the initial PDT; (3) the patient refused re-treatment with PDT, triamcinolone, or PDT–triamcinolone because of continuous visual deterioration in the fellow eye despite therapy; and (4) re-treatment with PDT was impossible because of recurrent or massive submacular hemorrhage. In 4 patients, verteporfin PDT was performed 3 days before surgery to reduce bleeding from the lesion site at the time of surgical extraction. Preoperative therapy with triamcinolone and PDT–triamcinolone was administered to decrease intraoperative hemorrhage, postoperative CNV recurrence, and the proliferative vitreoretinopathy rate.25,27,38 After the experimental nature of the treatment procedures and the risks and benefits of all therapy options had been fully explained, each patient gave written informed consent. The study followed the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki as revised in Tokyo, Japan, and in Venice, Italy.39 The study and the histologic analysis of the specimens were approved by the local institutional review board.