After obtaining approval from the respective institutional review boards of 3 pediatric ophthalmologists, the medical records of all children with a visually significant unilateral congenital cataract (≥3-mm central opacity) who underwent cataract surgery when 6 weeks or younger were reviewed. To be included in the study, children had to have (1) a normal intraocular pressure, retina, optic disc, and ciliary processes and a corneal diameter of 9 mm or more in the eye that was operated on; (2) a normal fellow eye; (3) good compliance with optical correction of the aphakic/pseudophakic eye until 6 years of age; (4) 3 hours/d or more of patching therapy as reported by the caregiver at the 12-month examination; and (5) an annual ocular examination at least until the child was 6 years of age. Children were excluded from the study if postoperatively they either developed glaucoma (an elevated intraocular pressure >25 mm Hg persisting for more than 2 weeks after topical corticosteroid use was discontinued or an intraocular pressure >21 mm Hg with any 1 of the following findings: enlargement of the cornea, asymmetrical progressive “myopic” shift, or increased optic nerve cupping) or a visual axis opacity requiring a membranectomy. Nine children qualified for the study. Data on these children were then entered on standardized case report forms that included the inclusion criteria, the date and type of cataract surgery and postoperative complications, and clinical data on the ocular examinations performed closest to the children's birthdays at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of age. Included in the case report forms were the date of each of these examinations, the number of waking hours per day of patching on average as reported by the parents, the type and power of the optical correction being worn, and the child's optotype acuity, including the test used to obtain the measurement. The case report forms were then faxed into a database from which summaries were produced. Values are reported as means and standard deviations.