Clinical information gathered from patients' medical records included age, race (African American, white, or Hispanic), sex (male or female), and medical history of hypercholesterolemia. The ocular data included best-corrected Snellen visual acuity, intraocular pressure, preoperative neovascular glaucoma (absent, present), status of lens (absent, present, pseudophakic), and anterior chamber cells (absent, present). The tumor data included the classification of the tumor (primary, secondary), number of tumors (multiple, solitary), laterality (bilateral, unilateral), retinal conditions associated with secondary VPT, and previous treatments. The tumor data included the meridian location of the tumor epicenter (superior, superotemporal, temporal, inferotemporal, inferior, inferonasal, nasal, superonasal); the anteroposterior location (ora to the equator, equator to macula, within the macula [≤3 mm from foveola]); largest tumor thickness measured on A-scan and B-scan ultrasonography (in millimeters); largest basal tumor diameter measured on B-scan ultrasonography (in millimeters); and presence of surrounding retinal exudation, premacular fibrosis, macular exudation, subfoveal fluid, cystoid macular edema, exudative retinal detachment, and retinal hemorrhages. The approximate percentage of retina involved with exudative retinal detachment (25%, 50%, 75%, 100%) was recorded. Iodine I 125 plaque radiotherapy was performed using a standard technique.15 The selection criteria for iodine I 125 plaque radiotherapy included larger tumor size at diagnosis (thickness >2.5 mm), presence of extensive subretinal fluid with a threat to visual acuity, and tumors for which previous cryotherapy or laser photocoagulation was not effective. Plaque sizes were selected using the standard Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study guidelines with a 2-mm safety margin around the tumor. Intraoperative localization was performed using indirect ophthalmoscopy with scleral indentation.