He attended the Wyoming Seminary, Princeton College, and the University of Pennsylvania Medical School, followed by an internship at the Geissenger Clinic. In 1951, he started his residency under Alan Woods, MD, at the Wilmer Eye Institute. He finished in 1956 after A. Edward Maumenee, MD, had assumed the professorship. His residency was interrupted by 2 years of army service. During residency, he was particularly close with Frank B. Walsh, MD, and Jonas Friedenwald, MD. On graduation, he joined Jack Guyton, MD, who had left the Wilmer Eye Institute in 1954 to become chair of Ophthalmology at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, Michigan.