To determine the prevalence and spectrum of retinal changes in juvenile Paget disease.
Observational case series and literature review with analysis. Patients with clinical and molecular evidence of juvenile Paget disease were recruited by members of the International Hyperphosphatasia Collaborative Group. Participants underwent ophthalmic examinations consisting of at least best-corrected Snellen visual acuity and dilated fundal examination or color fundus photography. A MEDLINE literature search was performed, and all identified case reports were reviewed for information regarding ocular phenotype.
Fourteen eyes from 7 patients were examined. The mean (SD) patient age was 22 (8) years, and 4 patients were female. Retinal abnormalities were evident in 12 of 14 eyes and were reported among an additional 12 patients in the literature. Retinal abnormalities included mottling of the retinal pigment epithelium, peripapillary atrophy, angioid streaks, and choroidal neovascularization. Cumulative number of retinal abnormalities was strongly associated with increasing age.
Juvenile Paget disease is associated with progressive retinopathy characterized by the development of angioid streaks, which may be complicated by choroidal neovascularization, the predominant cause of visual loss. Osteoprotegerin or its signaling pathway may have a role in calcification of Bruch membrane and in the pathogenesis of angioid streaks. Retinopathy in patients with juvenile Paget disease may be a sign of a more generalized vascular disorder.