To demonstrate attenuation of radiation from iodine 125 (125I) to intraocular structures using liquid vitreous substitutes.
Four candidate vitreous substitutes were tested for attenuation using empirical measurement and theoretical calculation. In vitro and ex vivo cadaveric dosimetry measurements were obtained with lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters to demonstrate the attenuation effect of vitreous substitution during 125I simulated plaque brachytherapy. Theoretical dosimetry calculations were based on Monte Carlo simulation.
In a cylindrical phantom at a 17-mm depth, liquid vitreous substitutes as compared with saline showed significant reduction of radiation penetration (48% for 1000-centistoke [cSt] silicone oil [polydimethyl-n-siloxane], 47% for 5000-cSt silicone oil [polydimethyl-n-siloxane], 40% for heavy oil [perfluorohexyloctane/polydimethyl-n-siloxane], and 35% for perfluorocarbon liquid [perfluoro-n-octane]). Human cadaveric ex vivo measurements demonstrated a 1000-cSt silicone oil to saline dose ratio of 35%, 52%, 55%, and 48% at arc lengths of 7.6, 10.6, 22.3, and 28.6 mm from the plaque edge, respectively, along the surface of the globe. Monte Carlo simulation of a human globe projected attenuation as high as 57% using 1000-cSt silicone oil.
Intraocular vitreous substitutes including silicone oil, heavy oil, and perfluorocarbon liquid attenuate the radiation dose from 125I. Cadaveric ex vivo measurements and Monte Carlo simulation both demonstrate radiation attenuation using 1000-cSt silicone oil at distances corresponding to vital ocular structures.
Attenuation of radiation with silicone oil endotamponade in the treatment of uveal melanoma may significantly reduce radiation-induced injury to vital ocular structures.