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Special Article |

The 101 Most Frequently Cited Articles in Ophthalmology Journals From 1850 to 1949 FREE

Norio Ohba, MD; Kumiko Nakao, MD
[+] Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: Orthoptics and Visual Science, Faculty of Medical Welfare, Aichishukutoku University, Aichi (Dr Ohba), and Department of Ophthalmology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medicine, Kagoshima-shi (Dr Nakao), Japan.


Arch Ophthalmol. 2010;128(12):1610-1617. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2010.308.
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Published online

We screened 32 ophthalmology journals that had published articles during the period from 1850 through 1949 to identify top-cited articles in the field of ophthalmology (hereafter referred to as citation classics) using the online database Science Citation Index Expanded (Thompson Reuters, Chicago, Illinois). The 101 most frequently cited articles were published in 16 journals. Archives of Ophthalmology had the most top-cited articles (n = 31), followed by American Journal of Ophthalmology (n = 24) and Albrecht von Graefe's Archiv für Ophthalmologie (n = 9). These articles originated from 14 countries, with the United States publishing the majority (n = 58). Most of the citation classics are clinical studies on topics such as rubella cataract, retinopathy of prematurity, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, sympathetic ophthalmia, and the first report of eponymous diseases (eg, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, Duane retraction syndrome, and Stargardt disease). A considerable number of these articles were ignored initially and for several decades after publication, but, like the classic fairy tale Sleeping Beauty, they have been rediscovered. Our study provides a historical perspective on the classic papers in the literature that are still influential in ophthalmology.

Figures in this Article

The citation of published articles provides an indication of the relevance of the cited work to later literature. The number of citations an article receives after its publication reflects its influence on the scientific community. Analysis of the number of times an article is cited may allow for the identification of a seminal advance in a specialty and may provide a historical perspective on the field's scientific progress. Citation classics in a given specialty are defined as those articles that have been most frequently cited in journals dedicated to the specialty and related fields. An earlier study identified and described citation classics in ophthalmology from 1975 to 2006.1 We report herein an analysis of classic articles that were published in ophthalmology journals during the century from 1850 to 1949 and have received the most frequent citations up to the recent decades.

In September 2009, we accessed the online database Science Citation Index Expanded (Thompson Reuters, Chicago, Illinois),2 which provides citation data for its source journals, and searched for articles that were published in ophthalmology journals between 1850 and 1949, using the Cited Reference Search option of the database. In the query box for the year of publication, we entered “1850-1949” to limit publication during the century. In the query box for the journal source, we used a Boolean “OR” logic search strategy with a set of suffix terms, including ophth*, ophthal*, ophthalmol*, ophtal*, oftal*, auge*, ocul*, ottal*, eye*, and physiological optics. In this way, we identified 7316 articles that were published in a total of 32 ophthalmology journals between 1850 and 1949 and that received at least 1 citation (Table 1). With the use of this search strategy, we retrieved data on the number of times each article was cited, the first author's last name and first-name initials, the abbreviated journal title, and the article publication year, volume, and first page number. Citation format errors in the retrieved information were not rare, and they included simple page number inversions, incorrect volume number but correct page number and year, and partial misspelling of author's last name, but we were generous in our citation tallies, including these relatively accurate citations as long as there was only 1 minor error per citing string.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 1. List of Screened Ophthalmology Journals

The records were compiled in an Excel spreadsheet (Microsoft 2003, Microsoft, Redmond, Washington). The 101 most-cited articles were identified, and their original texts were reviewed to characterize the article title, authors, affiliation and country, journal source, publication year, language, type of research methodology, study topic, and ocular tissue studied. Furthermore, information about the publications that cited each classic article was obtained to investigate the subject category of the articles that cited the relevant classics and the year-by-year citation history to define the relationship between year since publication and citations per year.

Table 1 provides a summary of the journal titles and publication years that we screened. Of 32 journals, 19 started publication in the second half of the 19th century, with the oldest one in 1838 (Annales d’Oculistique), and 13 started publication in the first half of the 20th century. The articles were written in 6 different languages: English (n = 20), German (n = 7). French (n = 2), Japanese (n = 1), Polish (n = 1), and Russian (n = 1).

We identified a total of 7316 articles that have received at least 1 citation. The number of articles cited was led by American Journal of Ophthalmology (third series), followed by Archives of Ophthalmology, Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde, Albrecht von Graefe's Archiv für Ophthalmologie, British Journal of Ophthalmology, and Transactions of the Ophthalmological Society of the United Kingdom. These journals also had a larger number of articles that were cited 50 times or more (Table 1). The number of articles receiving at least 1 citation increased steadily from 1850 to 1948 (ie, from 82 articles in the 1850s to 2070 articles in the 1940s).

With regard to number of times cited, the top-cited article was the one by Gregg,3 whose first report of rubella cataract was published in 1941 in the Transactions of the Ophthalmological Society of Australia and has since been cited 1160 times; this number is greater than that of the top-cited article in the previous study from 1975 to 2006.1 As shown in Table 2, the remaining 4 of the top 5 articles cited are as follows: Osterberg4 in 1935 on the human retinal photoreceptor cell topography (cited 417 times); Takayasu5 in 1908 (cited 372 times), which was the first to describe Takayasu arteritis; Talbot and Marshall6 in 1941 on the neural mechanisms of visual localization and discrimination (cited 366 times); and Michaelson and Campbell7 in 1948 on the development of retinal vascular system (cited 365 times). With regard to citation rank, the article that received 100 citations ranked 59th, the article that received 75 citations ranked 121st, the article that received 50 citations ranked 241st, and the article that received 25 citations ranked 734th. The top 101 were defined as citation classics3103 because there were 4 joint positions at the 98th rank with 80 citations.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. The 101 Most Frequently Cited Articles in Ophthalmology Journals, 1850-1949

Table 3 provides data on the journals in which the citation classics were published. The citation classics were published in 16 journals. Archives of Ophthalmology had the most top-cited articles (n = 31), followed by American Journal of Ophthalmology ( n = 24 ), Albrecht von Graefe's Archiv für Ophthalmologie (n = 9), British Journal of Ophthalmology (n = 8), and Acta Ophthalmologica (n = 7). Up to the mid 1910s, before the founding of British Journal of Ophthalmology, American Journal of Ophthalmology (third series), and Acta Ophthalmologica, European journals (including Albrecht von Graefe's Archiv für Ophthalmologie and Transactions of the Ophthal mological Society of the United Kingdom) contributed predominantly to the citation classics.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 3. Journals in Which the Top-Cited Articles Were Published From 1850 to 1949

Table 4 shows the countries of origin of the citation classics. More than half of the citation classics originated in the United States, followed by the United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, and Switzerland. These articles were written in English (n = 84), German (n = 14), French (n = 2), and Japanese (n = 1).

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 4. Country of Origin of Citation Classics in Ophthalmology From 1850 to 1949

Of the 101 citation classics, 77 were written by a single author, 18 by 2 authors, and 6 by 3 authors (Table 2). Ten authors contributed to 2 or more articles as the first author. Cogan authored 6 articles,17,55,63,80,94,99 Davis,19,35,65 Friedenwald,14,40,76 and Holmes12,13,37 each authored 3 articles, and Callender,16,46 Duane,27,59 Kinsey,72,90 Leber,28,53 Mandelbaum,54,96 and W. C. Owens23,93 each authored 2 articles (Table 2). None of the citation classics were the product of amulti-institutional or international collaboration.

The specialty categories of the 101 citation classics (Table 2) were anatomy/physiology/biochemistry (n = 25), pediatric ophthalmology/genetic ophthalmology (n = 25), pathology/microbiology/pharmacology (n = 14), general medical and surgical ophthalmology (n = 14), neuro-ophthalmology (n = 10), ocular oncology (n = 7), and systemic ophthalmology (n = 6). Seventy-one citation classics were observational studies of new clinical disease, diagnostic and therapeutic innovations, or histopathologic studies. Thirty articles reported results of basic research, of which 22 were on the physiological optics or visual psychophysics in humans and 8 were on the ocular anatomy and physiology in animals. The main topics included studies on retina, choroid, and vitreous tissue (n = 28), visual function (n = 15), ocular adnexa (n = 11), the cornea (n = 11), the uvea (n = 10), and the optic nerve (n = 7).

The subject categories of journals that cited the citation classics ranged from ophthalmology to many other specialties (Table 2). Of the 101 citation classics, 74 were cited most by articles in ophthalmology journals; these articles with predominant citations by ophthalmology journals dealt with a diverse range of clinical topics, such as tonometry,14 age-related macular degeneration,58 use of cocaine in ophthalmic surgery,68 pigmentary glaucoma,78 aqueous veins,86 herpetic keratitis,89 and gonioscopy.92 The remaining 28 articles were cited most frequently in other medical journals besides ophthalmology, including clinical neurology or neuroscience (n = 10), general medicine (n = 8), pediatrics (n = 2), and surgery (n = 2). Fifteen articles3,5,6,12,13,20,21,37,39,44,62,73,75,93,98 have received citations primarily in speciality journals other than ophthalmology. For instance, the article by Gregg3 on rubella cataract has received the most citations in pediatrics, public health, environmental health, occupational health, and obstetrics journals; the 2 articles by Holmes12,13 on the visual disturbances due to perforating gunshot head injuries have received many citations in neuroscience, clinical neurology, and behavioral science journals; the article by Warkany and Schraffenberger20 on the experimental ocular malformations due to maternal vitamin A deficiency has received most citations in articles concerning developmental biology, nutrition, and general medicine; and the article by Tay44 on the cherry red spot in the macula has been cited primarily in journals dedicated to clinical neurology, medicine, and pediatrics.

The Science Citation Index Expanded online database provided the data on the annual citations that each article has received since publication. Analysis of 10-year cumulative citation data revealed that the relationship between the decade since publication and citations per decade is fitted by 1 of 5 types of life-cycle curve (Figure). Type 1 is characterized by a rapid increase in citations to a peak in the first or second decade after publication, followed by a decrease in citations in the subsequent decades (Figure, A-E), and this type was identified in 17 citation classics. Type 2 is characterized by a gradual increase in citations to a peak in the 3 or more decades after publication, followed by a gradual decrease in citations in the subsequent decades, revealing an inverted u-shape relationship (Figure, F-H); the type 2 life-cycle curve was identified in 36 articles, 11 of which were published before 1930, including Batten's case reports of cerebral degeneration with macular changes,84 Bailliart's assessment of retinal artery blood pressure,100 and Elschnig's work on sympathetic ophthalmia.101 A type 3 life-cycle curve means that an article takes several decades after publication to get started in the citation history, followed by a marked increase in the latest decades (Figure, I-N); the type 3 life-cycle curve is identified in 30 articles. It is remarkable that 15 of the 30 articles with the type 3 life-cycle curve were published before 1920, including Leber's description of hereditary optic neuropathy,53 Treacher Collins' description of eyelid anomaly,73 Schirmer's study of tear production and secretion,15 von Hippel's description of retinal angioma,33 Tay's description of familial infantile idiocy,44 Duane's retraction syndrome,27 de Rötth's introduction of amniotic membrane transplantation for conjunctival repair,47 and Sorsby et al's description of fundus dystrophy characterized by late-onset progressive macular degeneration.38 The type 4 life-cycle curve has a nearly constant citation rate from publication up to the present, and this type was identified in 10 articles (Figure, O); the type 4 life-cycle curve is seen in Takayasu's case report5 of unique retinal vascular disease called Takayasu retinitis, and Heerfordt's uveoparotid fever.26 The type 5 life-cycle curve has marked citations in the early decades after publication, followed by a trough of few or no citations, which is followed by a revival in citations (Figure, P); this type was identified in 7 articles, including reports of retinopathy of prematurity by Terry9 and Owens and Owens,23 and Lindau's description of a syndrome characterized by angiomatosis of the retina and hemangioblastoma of the cerebellum.61

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure.

Different types of life cycles with regard to citation history of top-cited articles in ophthalmology. The abscissa (x axis) shows the years by decade, and the ordinate (y axis) shows the number of times that an article was cited for 10-year cumulative data. The open circles illustrate the year of publication of the cited article with the reference number. A-E, Type 1 life cycle. F-H, Type 2 life cycle. I-N, Type 3 life cycle. O, Type 4 life cycle. P, Type 5 life cycle.

Graphic Jump Location

These citation classics provide a historical perspective of the progress in ophthalmology from 1850 to 1949. It is remarkable that the majority of these old articles are still cited and continue to have an influence in the field of ophthalmology. Clinical observations were predominant with case reports of new disease, innovations of visual functional examinations, and improvement of medical and surgical management of ophthalmic disease. Basic studies consisted of classical physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology as well as light microscopic anatomy and histopathology. Notably, simple methodologies have made a profound impact on a wide range of clinical topics, including rubella cataract,3 keratoconjunctivitis sicca,8 retinopathy of prematurity,9,23,93 visual disturbances associated with cerebral damage,12,13,37 diabetic retinopathy,31 senile disciform macular degeneration,58 and pigmentary glaucoma.78 The articles that first described a genetic disease, such as Usher syndrome,24 Stargardt disease,30 and Leber hereditary optic neuropathy,28 were a remarkably high proportion of the citation classics, which may be attributed to the development of molecular genetics in the 1990s and 2000s.

A comparison of the current citation classics with the previously reported citation classics in ophthalmology from 1975 to 20061 demonstrates that there was a shift of the main contribution from European countries to the United States and points to the outstanding progress in research technologies, including refined epidemiology, molecular biology, immunology, laser technology, intraocular lens implantation, vitreoretinal surgery, randomized controlled trial–based research, and translational research. Concerning authorship, 77 of the 101 current citation classics were by a single author, whereas 14 of the 100 articles in the modern citation classics1 were product of multicenter studies with as many as 50 or more authors, and the remaining 86 articles were by a mean of 3 authors. The changing trend in authorship may be attributed to the advancement of technologies that have necessitated the collaboration of researchers of different background.

The precise tempo of the aging process of the citation history of publication may vary with the category of journals and the study topic. Among the 5 types of citation life cycles that we identified herein, the type 3, characterized by many decades' latency after publication followed by marked citations in recent years, provides an intriguing story that reminds us of the classic fairy tale Sleeping Beauty: an article that goes unnoticed (sleeps) for a long time and then, almost suddenly, attracts a lot of attention (is awaked by a prince). A representative instance is the report in 1940 of amniotic membrane transplantation for ocular surface disorders by de Rötth,47 which was barely recognized until the late 1990s (Figure). It is notable that related articles by contemporaries Sorsby et al104 and Lavery105 had a similar citation life cycle, although with fewer citations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to use the metaphor of Sleeping Beauty to analyze citation patterns in the medical literature. The sleeping beauties are not just an exotic whim in physics and psychology.106,107

There are limitations in the current citation classics. The online database Science Citation Index Expanded is updated on an ongoing basis,2 and the citation scores may vary with the date of retrieval. For instance, the analysis of the Archives of Ophthalmology 's most frequently cited articles in 1986108 revealed that Davis65 and Forrest32 had then received 90 and 101 citations, respectively, whereas, in the current analysis, their citations are 95 and 137, respectively. In the sociology of science, obliteration by incorporation occurs when, at some stage in the development of a science, certain ideas become so accepted that their contributors are no longer cited (ie, original seminal work is absorbed into current knowledge and is no longer explicitly cited).109 Not a few articles must have been excluded from the list of the current citation classics. To take a few examples, von Graefe's 1853 paper on iridectomy for acute glaucoma110 and Horner's 1864 paper on the Horner syndrome111 have received fewer citations than the criteria of the current citation classics. Furthermore, herein, we have been concerned only with articles in ophthalmology journals. It is likely that we have overlooked influential articles that were published in other medical journals and received frequent citations (eg, Behçet's 1937 article on Behçet disease that was published in Dermatologische Wochenschrift112 and has received more than 850 citations in a wide range of specialty journals). Despite these limitations, the current citation classics provide a historical perspective of the scientific advances of ophthalmology from 1850 to 1949 that are still influential in the 21st century, and they offer researchers hints about how to produce an article that can be cited frequently over several decades.

Correspondence: Norio Ohba, MD, Orthoptics and Visual Science, Faculty of Medical Welfare, Aichishukutoku University, Asahigaoka 109-3, Minami-sakaemachi Owariasahi-shi, Aichi 488-0046, Japan.

Submitted for Publication: October 21, 2009; final revision received February 14, 2010; accepted February 16, 2010.

Financial Disclosure: None reported.

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Osterberg  G Topography of the layer of rods and cones in the human retina. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1935;13 ((suppl 6)) 1- 103
Takayasu  M A case with peculiar changes of the central retinal vessels [in Japanese]. Acta Soc Ophthalmol Jpn 1908;1254- 55
Talbot  SAMarshall  WH Physiological studies on neural mechanisms of visual localization and discrimination. Am J Ophthalmol 1941;241255- 1263
Michaelson  ICCampbell  DA The mode of development of the vascular system of the retina with some observations of its significance for certain retinal diseases. Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K 1948;68137- 180
Sjögren  H Zur Kenntnis der Keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1933;11 ((suppl 2)) 1- 151
Terry  TL Extreme prematurity and fibroblastic overgrowth of persistent vascular sheath behind each crystalline lens, I: preliminary report. Am J Ophthalmol 1942;25203- 204
Bourne  MCCampbell  DATansley  K Hereditary degeneration of the rat retina. Br J Ophthalmol 1938;22 (10) 613- 623
PubMed Link to Article
Stiles  WS Increment thresholds and the mechanisms of colour vision. Doc Ophthalmol 1949;3138- 165
PubMed Link to Article
Holmes  G Disturbances of visual orientation. Br J Ophthalmol 1918;2 (9) 449- 468
PubMed Link to Article
Holmes  G Disturbances of vision caused by cerebral lesions. Br J Ophthalmol 1918;2 (7) 353- 384
PubMed Link to Article
Friedenwald  JS Contribution to the theory and practice of tonometry. Am J Ophthalmol 1937;20985- 1024
Schirmer  O Studien zur physiologie und pathologie der Tränenabsonderung und Tränenabfuhr. Albrecht von Graef Arch Ophthalmol 1903;56197- 291
Link to Article
Callender  GR Malignant melanotic tumors of the eye: a study of histologic types in all cases. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 1931;36131- 142
Cogan  DG Syndrome of nonsyphilitic interstitial keratitis and vestibuloauditory symptoms. Arch Ophthalmol 1945;33 (3) 144- 149
Link to Article
Franceschetti  AKlein  D The mandibulofacial dysostosis; a new hereditary syndrome. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1949;27 (2) 143- 224
PubMed
Davis  FA The anatomy and histology of the eye and orbit of the rabbit. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 1929;27401- 441
PubMed
Warkany  JSchraffenberger  E Congenital malformations induced in rats by maternal vitamin A deficiency, 1: defects of the eye. Arch Ophthalmol 1946;35150- 169
Link to Article
Hale  F The relation of vitamin A to anophthalmos in pigs. Am J Ophthalmol 1935;181087- 1092
Laurence  JZMoon  RC Four cases of “retinitis pigmentosa” occurring in the same family and accompanied by general imperfections of development. Ophthalmic Rev 1866;232- 41
Owens  WCOwens  EU Retrolental fibroplasia in premature infants; studies on the prophylaxis of the disease; the use of alpha tocopheryl acetate. Am J Ophthalmol 1949;32 (12) 1631- 1637
PubMed
Usher  CH On the inheritance of retinitis pigmentosa, with notes of cases. Roy Lond Ophthalmol Hosp Rep 1914;19130- 236
Wald  G The photochemistry of vision. Doc Ophthalmol 1949;394- 137
PubMed Link to Article
Heerfordt  CF Über eine “Febris uveo-parotidea subchronica”, an der Glandula parotis und der Uvea des Auges lokalisiert und häufig mit Paresen cerebrospinaler Nerven kompliziert. Albrecht von Graef Arch Ophthalmol 1909;70254- 273
PubMed
Link to Article
Duane  A Congenital deficiency of abduction, associated with impairment of adduction, retraction movements, contraction of the palpebral fissure and oblique movements of the eye. Arch Ophthalmol 1905;34133- 159
PubMed
Leber  T Über hereditäre und congenital-angelegte Sehnervenleiden. Albrecht von Graef Arch Ophthalmol 1871;17249- 291
PubMed
Link to Article
Karpe  G The basis of clinical electroretinography. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1945;23 ((suppl 24)) 1- 118
Stargardt  K Über familiare progressive Degeneration im der Maculagegend des Auges. Albrecht von Graef Arch Ophthalmol 1909;71534- 550
Link to Article
Ashton  N Vascular changes in diabetes with particular reference to the retinal vessels; preliminary report. Br J Ophthalmol 1949;33 (7) 407- 420
PubMed Link to Article
Forrest  AW Intraorbital tumors. Arch Ophthal 1949;41 (2) 198- 232
PubMed Link to Article
von Hippel  E Über eine sehr seltene Erkrankung der Netzhaut. Albrecht von Graef Arch Ophthalmol 1904;5983- 106
PubMed
Link to Article
Fincham  EF The Mechanism of Accommodation: British Journal of Ophthalmology Monograph Supplement VIII.  London, England Pulman 1937;
Davis  FA Primary tumors of the optic nerve (a phenomenon of Recklinghausen's disease): a clinical and pathologic study with a report of five cases and a review of the literature. Arch Ophthalmol 1940;23 (5) 957- 1022
Link to Article
Naffziger  HC Pathologic changes in the orbit in progressive exophthalmos. Arch Ophthalmol 1933;91- 12
Link to Article
Holmes  G Disturbances of visual orientation. Br J Ophthalmol 1918;2 (10) 506- 516
PubMed Link to Article
Sorsby  AMason  MEJGardener  N A fundus dystrophy with unusual features. Br J Ophthalmol 1949;33 (2) 67- 97
PubMed Link to Article
Carpenter  CPSmyth  HF  Jr Chemical burns of the rabbit cornea. Am J Ophthalmol 1946;29 (11) 1363- 1372
PubMed
Friedenwald  JS A new approach to some problems of retinal vascular disease. Am J Ophthalmol 1949;32 (4) 487- 498
PubMed
Krause  AC Congenital encephalo-ophthalmic dysplasia. Arch Ophthalmol 1946;36387- 444
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Smelser  GK A comparative study of experimental and clinical exophthalmos. Am J Ophthalmol 1937;201189- 1203
Martin  P Primary gliomas of the chiasm and optic nerves in their intracranial portion. Arch Ophthalmol 1923;52209- 241
Tay  W Symmetrical changes in the region of the yellow spot in each eye of an infant. Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K 1881;155- 57
Walls  GLJudd  HD The intra-ocular colour filters of vertebrates. Br J Ophthalmol 1933;17 (11) 641- 675
PubMed Link to Article
Callender  GRWilder  HCAsh  JE Five hundred malanomas of the choroid and ciliary body followed five years or longer. Am J Ophthalmol 1942;25962- 967
de Rötth  A Plastic repair of conjunctival defects with fetal membranes. Arch Ophthalmol 1940;23 (3) 522- 525
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Wagner  H Ein bisher unbekanntes Erbleiden des Auges (Degeneratio hyaloideo-retinalis hereditaria), beobachtet im Kanton Zürich. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1938;100840- 858
Adamantiades  B Sur un cas d'iritis á hypopyon rézidivant. Ann Ocul (Paris) 1931;168271- 278
Coats  G Forms of retinal disease with massive exudation. Roy Lond Ophthalmol Hosp Rep 1908;17 (3) 440- 525
Grönblad  EE Angioid streaks: pseudoxanthoma elasticum: vorläufige Mitteilung. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1929;7329
PubMed
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Best  F II: Über eine hereditäre Maculaaffektion. Z Augenheilkunde 1905;13 (3) 199- 212
PubMed
Leber  T Über Retinitis pigmentosa und Angeborene Amaurose. Arch Ophthalmol 1869;15 (3) 1- 25
PubMed
Mandelbaum  JSloan  LL Peripheral visual acuity with special reference to scotopic illumination. Am J Ophthalmol 1947;30 (5) 581- 588
PubMed
Cogan  DG Accommodation and the autonomic nervous system. Arch Ophthalmol 1937;18 (5) 739- 766
Link to Article
Ludvigh  E McCarthy  EF Absorption of visible light by the refractive media of the human eye. Arch Ophthalmol 1938;20 (1) 37- 51
Link to Article
Pfeiffer  RL Traumatic enophthalamos. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 1943;41293- 306
Verhoeff  FHGrossman  HP Pathogenesis of disciform degeneration of the macula. Arch Ophthalmol 1937;18 (4) 561- 585
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Duane  A Studies in monocular and binocular accommodation with their clinical applications. Am J Ophthalmol 1922;5865- 877
van der Hoeve  J The Doyne memorial lecture: Eye symptoms in phacomatoses. Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K 1932;52380- 401
Lindau  A Zur Frage der Angiomatosis Retinae und ihre Hirncomplikation. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1927;4193- 226
PubMed
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Rothmund  A Über Cataracten in Verbindung mit einer eigentümlichen Hautdegeneration. Archiv Ophthalmologie (Berlin) 1868;14159- 182
Cogan  DG Vascularization of the cornea: its experimental induction by small lesions and a new theory of its pathogenesis. Arch Ophthal 1949;41 (4) 406- 416
PubMed Link to Article
Collins  RC Experimental studies on sympathetic ophthalmia. Am J Ophthalmol 1949;32 (12) 1687- 1699, illust
PubMed
Davis  FA Primary tumors of the optic nerve (a phenomenon of Recklinghausen's disease): a clinical and pathologic study with a report of five cases and a review of the literature. Arch Ophthalmol 1940;23735- 821
Link to Article
Craig  WMGogela  LJ Intraorbital meningiomas: a clinicopathologic study. Am J Ophthalmol 1949;32 (12) 1663- 1680, illust
PubMed
Edgerton  AE Herpes zoster ophthalmicus: report of cases and review of literature. Arch Ophthalmol 1945;34 (2) 114- 153
Link to Article
Knapp  H On cocaine and its use in ophthalmic and general surgery. Arch Ophthalmol 1884;13402- 448
Walsh  FBKing  AB Ocular signs of intracranial saccular aneurysms: experimental work on collateral circulation through the ophthalmic artery. Arch Ophthalmol 1942;27 (1) 1- 33
Link to Article
Wolff  E The muco-cutaneous junction of the lid-margin and the distribution of the tear fluid. Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K 1946;66291- 308
Howard  HJ A test for the judgment of distance. Am J Ophthalmol 1919;2656- 675
Kinsey  VE Spectral transmission of the eye to ultraviolet radiations. Arch Ophthal 1948;39 (4) 508- 513
PubMed Link to Article
Treacher Collins  E Cases with symmetrical congenital notches in the outer part of each lower lid and defective development of the malar bones. Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K 1933;20190- 192
Ferree  CERand  GHardy  C Refraction for the peripheral field of vision. Arch Ophthalmol 1931;5 (5) 717- 731
Link to Article
Rados  A Marfan's syndrome (arachnodactyly coupled with displacement of the lens). Arch Ophthalmol 1942;27477- 538
Link to Article
Friedenwald  JS The formation of the intraocular fluid. Am J Ophthalmol 1949;32 (6) 9- 27
PubMed
Magoun  HWRanson  SW The central path of the light reflex: a study of the effect of lesions. Arch Ophthalmol 1935;13 (5) 791- 811
Link to Article
Sugar  HSBarbour  FA Pigmentary glaucoma: a rare clinical entity. Am J Ophthalmol 1949;32 (1) 90- 92
PubMed
Adler  FH Influence of fixation on the visual acuity. Arch Ophthalmol 1934;12 (4) 475- 483
Link to Article
Cogan  DGAlbright  FBartter  FC Hypercalcemia and band keratopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 1948;40 (6) 624- 638
Link to Article
Fuchs  E Über komplikationen der Heterochromie. Z Augenheilkunde 1906;15 (3) 191- 212
PubMed
Koyanagi  Y Dysakusis, Alopecie und Poliosis bei schwerer Uveitis nicht traumatischen Ursprungs. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1929;82194- 211
Ogle  KN Induced size effect, I: a new phenomenon in binocular space perception associated with the relative sizes of the images of the two eyes. Arch Ophthalmol 1938;20 (4) 604- 623
Link to Article
Batten  NE Cerebral degeneration with symmetrical changes in the maculae in two members of a family. Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K 1903;23386- 390
Norrie  G Causes of blindness in children: twenty-four years' experience of Danish Institutes for the Blind. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1927;5 (1-3) 357- 386
PubMed
Link to Article
Ascher  KW Aqueous veins. Preliminary note. Am J Ophthalmol 1942;2531- 38
Day  PLLangston  WCO’Brien  LS Cataract and other ocular changes in vitamin C deficiency. Am J Ophthalmol 1931;141005- 1009
Guerry  D  IIIKendig  EL  Jr Congenital impatency of the nasolacrimal duct. Arch Ophthal 1948;39 (2) 193- 204
PubMed Link to Article
Gundersen  T Herpes corneae with special reference to its treatment with strong solution of iodine. Arch Ophthalmol 1936;15 (2) 225- 249
Link to Article
Kinsey  VE Transfer of ascorbic acid and related compounds across the blood-aqueous barrier. Am J Ophthalmol 1947;30 (10) 1262- 1266
PubMed
Vogt  A Frühzeitiges Ergrauen der Zilien und Bemerkungen über den sogennanten plötzlichen Eintritt dieser Veränderung. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1906;44228- 242
Barkan  O Glaucoma: classification, causes, and surgical control: results of microgonioscopic research. Am J Ophthalmol 1938;211099- 1117
Owens  WCOwens  EU Retrolental fibroplasia in premature infants. Am J Ophthalmol 1949;32 (1) 1- 21
PubMed
Cogan  DGKinsey  VE Action spectrum of keratitis produced by ultraviolet radiation. Arch Ophthalmol 1946;35 (6) 670- 677
Link to Article
Cushing  HEisenhardt  L Meningiomas arising from the tuberculum sellae: with the syndrome of primary optic atrophy and bitemporal field defects combined with a normal sella turcica in a middle-aged person. Arch Ophthalmol 1929;11- 41
Link to Article
Mandelbaum  J Dark adaptation: some physiologic and clinical considerations. Am J Ophthalmol 1941;26 (2) 203- 239
Swan  KC Corneal permeability, I: factors affecting penetration of drugs into the cornea. Am J Ophthalmol 1942;251043- 1058
Weinberger  LM Visual hallucinations and their neuro-optical correlates. Arch Ophthalmol 1940;23 (1) 166- 199
Link to Article
Cogan  DGKinsey  VE The cornea, V: physiologic aspects. Arch Ophthalmol 1942;28 (4) 661- 669
Link to Article
Bailliart  P La pression artérielle dans le branches de l'artére centrale de la rétine: nouvelle technique pour la d’terminer. Ann Ocul (Paris) 1917;154648- 666
Elschnig  A Studien zur sympatischen Ophthalmie, II: die antigene Wirkung des Augenpigmentes. Albrecht von Graef Arch Ophthalmol 1910;76509- 546
Link to Article
Maumenee  AE Retinal lesions in lupus erythematosus. Am J Ophthalmol 1940;23971- 981
Rieger  H Beiträge zur Kenntniss seltener Missbildungen der Iris, II: der Hypoplasie des Irisvorderblattes mit Verlagerung und Entrundungen der Pupille. Albrecht von Graef Arch Ophthalmol 1935;133602- 635
PubMed
Link to Article
Sorsby  AHaythorne  JReed  H Further experience with amniotic membrane grafts in caustic burns of the eye. Br J Ophthalmol 1947;31409- 418
PubMed
Link to Article
Lavery  FS Lime burns of conjunctiva and cornea treated with amnioplastic grafts. Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K 1946;66668
Redner  S Citation statistics from 110 years of Physical Review. Phys Today 2005;49- 54
PubMed
Lange  LL Sleeping beauties in psychology: comparisons of “hits” and “missed signals” in psychological journals. Hist Psychol 2005;8 (2) 194- 217
PubMed Link to Article
Albert  DM Analysis of the Archives' most frequently cited articles. Arch Ophthalmol 1988;106 (4) 465- 470
PubMed Link to Article
Morton  RK Social Theory and Social Structure.  New York Free Press 1968;
von Graefe  A Iridektomie bei Glaucom. Arch Ophthalmol (Berlin) 1856;3456- 555
Link to Article
Horner  JF Über eine Form von Ptosis. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1869;7193- 198
Behçet  H Über rezidivierende, aphthöse, durch ein Virus verursachte Geschwüre am Mund, am Auge und an den Genitalien. Dermatol Wochenschr 1937;1051152- 1157

Figures

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure.

Different types of life cycles with regard to citation history of top-cited articles in ophthalmology. The abscissa (x axis) shows the years by decade, and the ordinate (y axis) shows the number of times that an article was cited for 10-year cumulative data. The open circles illustrate the year of publication of the cited article with the reference number. A-E, Type 1 life cycle. F-H, Type 2 life cycle. I-N, Type 3 life cycle. O, Type 4 life cycle. P, Type 5 life cycle.

Graphic Jump Location

Tables

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 1. List of Screened Ophthalmology Journals
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. The 101 Most Frequently Cited Articles in Ophthalmology Journals, 1850-1949
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 3. Journals in Which the Top-Cited Articles Were Published From 1850 to 1949
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 4. Country of Origin of Citation Classics in Ophthalmology From 1850 to 1949

References

Ohba  NNakao  KIsashiki  YOhba  A The 100 most frequently cited articles in ophthalmology journals. Arch Ophthalmol 2007;125 (7) 952- 960
PubMed Link to Article
Scientific Citation Index Expanded, Web of Science. Thomson-Reuters,http://thomsonreuters.com/ September2009;
Gregg  NM Congenital cataract following German measles in the mother. Trans Ophthalmol Soc Aust 1941;335- 45
Osterberg  G Topography of the layer of rods and cones in the human retina. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1935;13 ((suppl 6)) 1- 103
Takayasu  M A case with peculiar changes of the central retinal vessels [in Japanese]. Acta Soc Ophthalmol Jpn 1908;1254- 55
Talbot  SAMarshall  WH Physiological studies on neural mechanisms of visual localization and discrimination. Am J Ophthalmol 1941;241255- 1263
Michaelson  ICCampbell  DA The mode of development of the vascular system of the retina with some observations of its significance for certain retinal diseases. Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K 1948;68137- 180
Sjögren  H Zur Kenntnis der Keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1933;11 ((suppl 2)) 1- 151
Terry  TL Extreme prematurity and fibroblastic overgrowth of persistent vascular sheath behind each crystalline lens, I: preliminary report. Am J Ophthalmol 1942;25203- 204
Bourne  MCCampbell  DATansley  K Hereditary degeneration of the rat retina. Br J Ophthalmol 1938;22 (10) 613- 623
PubMed Link to Article
Stiles  WS Increment thresholds and the mechanisms of colour vision. Doc Ophthalmol 1949;3138- 165
PubMed Link to Article
Holmes  G Disturbances of visual orientation. Br J Ophthalmol 1918;2 (9) 449- 468
PubMed Link to Article
Holmes  G Disturbances of vision caused by cerebral lesions. Br J Ophthalmol 1918;2 (7) 353- 384
PubMed Link to Article
Friedenwald  JS Contribution to the theory and practice of tonometry. Am J Ophthalmol 1937;20985- 1024
Schirmer  O Studien zur physiologie und pathologie der Tränenabsonderung und Tränenabfuhr. Albrecht von Graef Arch Ophthalmol 1903;56197- 291
Link to Article
Callender  GR Malignant melanotic tumors of the eye: a study of histologic types in all cases. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 1931;36131- 142
Cogan  DG Syndrome of nonsyphilitic interstitial keratitis and vestibuloauditory symptoms. Arch Ophthalmol 1945;33 (3) 144- 149
Link to Article
Franceschetti  AKlein  D The mandibulofacial dysostosis; a new hereditary syndrome. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1949;27 (2) 143- 224
PubMed
Davis  FA The anatomy and histology of the eye and orbit of the rabbit. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 1929;27401- 441
PubMed
Warkany  JSchraffenberger  E Congenital malformations induced in rats by maternal vitamin A deficiency, 1: defects of the eye. Arch Ophthalmol 1946;35150- 169
Link to Article
Hale  F The relation of vitamin A to anophthalmos in pigs. Am J Ophthalmol 1935;181087- 1092
Laurence  JZMoon  RC Four cases of “retinitis pigmentosa” occurring in the same family and accompanied by general imperfections of development. Ophthalmic Rev 1866;232- 41
Owens  WCOwens  EU Retrolental fibroplasia in premature infants; studies on the prophylaxis of the disease; the use of alpha tocopheryl acetate. Am J Ophthalmol 1949;32 (12) 1631- 1637
PubMed
Usher  CH On the inheritance of retinitis pigmentosa, with notes of cases. Roy Lond Ophthalmol Hosp Rep 1914;19130- 236
Wald  G The photochemistry of vision. Doc Ophthalmol 1949;394- 137
PubMed Link to Article
Heerfordt  CF Über eine “Febris uveo-parotidea subchronica”, an der Glandula parotis und der Uvea des Auges lokalisiert und häufig mit Paresen cerebrospinaler Nerven kompliziert. Albrecht von Graef Arch Ophthalmol 1909;70254- 273
PubMed
Link to Article
Duane  A Congenital deficiency of abduction, associated with impairment of adduction, retraction movements, contraction of the palpebral fissure and oblique movements of the eye. Arch Ophthalmol 1905;34133- 159
PubMed
Leber  T Über hereditäre und congenital-angelegte Sehnervenleiden. Albrecht von Graef Arch Ophthalmol 1871;17249- 291
PubMed
Link to Article
Karpe  G The basis of clinical electroretinography. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1945;23 ((suppl 24)) 1- 118
Stargardt  K Über familiare progressive Degeneration im der Maculagegend des Auges. Albrecht von Graef Arch Ophthalmol 1909;71534- 550
Link to Article
Ashton  N Vascular changes in diabetes with particular reference to the retinal vessels; preliminary report. Br J Ophthalmol 1949;33 (7) 407- 420
PubMed Link to Article
Forrest  AW Intraorbital tumors. Arch Ophthal 1949;41 (2) 198- 232
PubMed Link to Article
von Hippel  E Über eine sehr seltene Erkrankung der Netzhaut. Albrecht von Graef Arch Ophthalmol 1904;5983- 106
PubMed
Link to Article
Fincham  EF The Mechanism of Accommodation: British Journal of Ophthalmology Monograph Supplement VIII.  London, England Pulman 1937;
Davis  FA Primary tumors of the optic nerve (a phenomenon of Recklinghausen's disease): a clinical and pathologic study with a report of five cases and a review of the literature. Arch Ophthalmol 1940;23 (5) 957- 1022
Link to Article
Naffziger  HC Pathologic changes in the orbit in progressive exophthalmos. Arch Ophthalmol 1933;91- 12
Link to Article
Holmes  G Disturbances of visual orientation. Br J Ophthalmol 1918;2 (10) 506- 516
PubMed Link to Article
Sorsby  AMason  MEJGardener  N A fundus dystrophy with unusual features. Br J Ophthalmol 1949;33 (2) 67- 97
PubMed Link to Article
Carpenter  CPSmyth  HF  Jr Chemical burns of the rabbit cornea. Am J Ophthalmol 1946;29 (11) 1363- 1372
PubMed
Friedenwald  JS A new approach to some problems of retinal vascular disease. Am J Ophthalmol 1949;32 (4) 487- 498
PubMed
Krause  AC Congenital encephalo-ophthalmic dysplasia. Arch Ophthalmol 1946;36387- 444
Link to Article
Smelser  GK A comparative study of experimental and clinical exophthalmos. Am J Ophthalmol 1937;201189- 1203
Martin  P Primary gliomas of the chiasm and optic nerves in their intracranial portion. Arch Ophthalmol 1923;52209- 241
Tay  W Symmetrical changes in the region of the yellow spot in each eye of an infant. Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K 1881;155- 57
Walls  GLJudd  HD The intra-ocular colour filters of vertebrates. Br J Ophthalmol 1933;17 (11) 641- 675
PubMed Link to Article
Callender  GRWilder  HCAsh  JE Five hundred malanomas of the choroid and ciliary body followed five years or longer. Am J Ophthalmol 1942;25962- 967
de Rötth  A Plastic repair of conjunctival defects with fetal membranes. Arch Ophthalmol 1940;23 (3) 522- 525
Link to Article
Wagner  H Ein bisher unbekanntes Erbleiden des Auges (Degeneratio hyaloideo-retinalis hereditaria), beobachtet im Kanton Zürich. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1938;100840- 858
Adamantiades  B Sur un cas d'iritis á hypopyon rézidivant. Ann Ocul (Paris) 1931;168271- 278
Coats  G Forms of retinal disease with massive exudation. Roy Lond Ophthalmol Hosp Rep 1908;17 (3) 440- 525
Grönblad  EE Angioid streaks: pseudoxanthoma elasticum: vorläufige Mitteilung. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1929;7329
PubMed
Link to Article
Best  F II: Über eine hereditäre Maculaaffektion. Z Augenheilkunde 1905;13 (3) 199- 212
PubMed
Leber  T Über Retinitis pigmentosa und Angeborene Amaurose. Arch Ophthalmol 1869;15 (3) 1- 25
PubMed
Mandelbaum  JSloan  LL Peripheral visual acuity with special reference to scotopic illumination. Am J Ophthalmol 1947;30 (5) 581- 588
PubMed
Cogan  DG Accommodation and the autonomic nervous system. Arch Ophthalmol 1937;18 (5) 739- 766
Link to Article
Ludvigh  E McCarthy  EF Absorption of visible light by the refractive media of the human eye. Arch Ophthalmol 1938;20 (1) 37- 51
Link to Article
Pfeiffer  RL Traumatic enophthalamos. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 1943;41293- 306
Verhoeff  FHGrossman  HP Pathogenesis of disciform degeneration of the macula. Arch Ophthalmol 1937;18 (4) 561- 585
Link to Article
Duane  A Studies in monocular and binocular accommodation with their clinical applications. Am J Ophthalmol 1922;5865- 877
van der Hoeve  J The Doyne memorial lecture: Eye symptoms in phacomatoses. Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K 1932;52380- 401
Lindau  A Zur Frage der Angiomatosis Retinae und ihre Hirncomplikation. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1927;4193- 226
PubMed
Link to Article
Rothmund  A Über Cataracten in Verbindung mit einer eigentümlichen Hautdegeneration. Archiv Ophthalmologie (Berlin) 1868;14159- 182
Cogan  DG Vascularization of the cornea: its experimental induction by small lesions and a new theory of its pathogenesis. Arch Ophthal 1949;41 (4) 406- 416
PubMed Link to Article
Collins  RC Experimental studies on sympathetic ophthalmia. Am J Ophthalmol 1949;32 (12) 1687- 1699, illust
PubMed
Davis  FA Primary tumors of the optic nerve (a phenomenon of Recklinghausen's disease): a clinical and pathologic study with a report of five cases and a review of the literature. Arch Ophthalmol 1940;23735- 821
Link to Article
Craig  WMGogela  LJ Intraorbital meningiomas: a clinicopathologic study. Am J Ophthalmol 1949;32 (12) 1663- 1680, illust
PubMed
Edgerton  AE Herpes zoster ophthalmicus: report of cases and review of literature. Arch Ophthalmol 1945;34 (2) 114- 153
Link to Article
Knapp  H On cocaine and its use in ophthalmic and general surgery. Arch Ophthalmol 1884;13402- 448
Walsh  FBKing  AB Ocular signs of intracranial saccular aneurysms: experimental work on collateral circulation through the ophthalmic artery. Arch Ophthalmol 1942;27 (1) 1- 33
Link to Article
Wolff  E The muco-cutaneous junction of the lid-margin and the distribution of the tear fluid. Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K 1946;66291- 308
Howard  HJ A test for the judgment of distance. Am J Ophthalmol 1919;2656- 675
Kinsey  VE Spectral transmission of the eye to ultraviolet radiations. Arch Ophthal 1948;39 (4) 508- 513
PubMed Link to Article
Treacher Collins  E Cases with symmetrical congenital notches in the outer part of each lower lid and defective development of the malar bones. Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K 1933;20190- 192
Ferree  CERand  GHardy  C Refraction for the peripheral field of vision. Arch Ophthalmol 1931;5 (5) 717- 731
Link to Article
Rados  A Marfan's syndrome (arachnodactyly coupled with displacement of the lens). Arch Ophthalmol 1942;27477- 538
Link to Article
Friedenwald  JS The formation of the intraocular fluid. Am J Ophthalmol 1949;32 (6) 9- 27
PubMed
Magoun  HWRanson  SW The central path of the light reflex: a study of the effect of lesions. Arch Ophthalmol 1935;13 (5) 791- 811
Link to Article
Sugar  HSBarbour  FA Pigmentary glaucoma: a rare clinical entity. Am J Ophthalmol 1949;32 (1) 90- 92
PubMed
Adler  FH Influence of fixation on the visual acuity. Arch Ophthalmol 1934;12 (4) 475- 483
Link to Article
Cogan  DGAlbright  FBartter  FC Hypercalcemia and band keratopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 1948;40 (6) 624- 638
Link to Article
Fuchs  E Über komplikationen der Heterochromie. Z Augenheilkunde 1906;15 (3) 191- 212
PubMed
Koyanagi  Y Dysakusis, Alopecie und Poliosis bei schwerer Uveitis nicht traumatischen Ursprungs. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1929;82194- 211
Ogle  KN Induced size effect, I: a new phenomenon in binocular space perception associated with the relative sizes of the images of the two eyes. Arch Ophthalmol 1938;20 (4) 604- 623
Link to Article
Batten  NE Cerebral degeneration with symmetrical changes in the maculae in two members of a family. Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K 1903;23386- 390
Norrie  G Causes of blindness in children: twenty-four years' experience of Danish Institutes for the Blind. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1927;5 (1-3) 357- 386
PubMed
Link to Article
Ascher  KW Aqueous veins. Preliminary note. Am J Ophthalmol 1942;2531- 38
Day  PLLangston  WCO’Brien  LS Cataract and other ocular changes in vitamin C deficiency. Am J Ophthalmol 1931;141005- 1009
Guerry  D  IIIKendig  EL  Jr Congenital impatency of the nasolacrimal duct. Arch Ophthal 1948;39 (2) 193- 204
PubMed Link to Article
Gundersen  T Herpes corneae with special reference to its treatment with strong solution of iodine. Arch Ophthalmol 1936;15 (2) 225- 249
Link to Article
Kinsey  VE Transfer of ascorbic acid and related compounds across the blood-aqueous barrier. Am J Ophthalmol 1947;30 (10) 1262- 1266
PubMed
Vogt  A Frühzeitiges Ergrauen der Zilien und Bemerkungen über den sogennanten plötzlichen Eintritt dieser Veränderung. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1906;44228- 242
Barkan  O Glaucoma: classification, causes, and surgical control: results of microgonioscopic research. Am J Ophthalmol 1938;211099- 1117
Owens  WCOwens  EU Retrolental fibroplasia in premature infants. Am J Ophthalmol 1949;32 (1) 1- 21
PubMed
Cogan  DGKinsey  VE Action spectrum of keratitis produced by ultraviolet radiation. Arch Ophthalmol 1946;35 (6) 670- 677
Link to Article
Cushing  HEisenhardt  L Meningiomas arising from the tuberculum sellae: with the syndrome of primary optic atrophy and bitemporal field defects combined with a normal sella turcica in a middle-aged person. Arch Ophthalmol 1929;11- 41
Link to Article
Mandelbaum  J Dark adaptation: some physiologic and clinical considerations. Am J Ophthalmol 1941;26 (2) 203- 239
Swan  KC Corneal permeability, I: factors affecting penetration of drugs into the cornea. Am J Ophthalmol 1942;251043- 1058
Weinberger  LM Visual hallucinations and their neuro-optical correlates. Arch Ophthalmol 1940;23 (1) 166- 199
Link to Article
Cogan  DGKinsey  VE The cornea, V: physiologic aspects. Arch Ophthalmol 1942;28 (4) 661- 669
Link to Article
Bailliart  P La pression artérielle dans le branches de l'artére centrale de la rétine: nouvelle technique pour la d’terminer. Ann Ocul (Paris) 1917;154648- 666
Elschnig  A Studien zur sympatischen Ophthalmie, II: die antigene Wirkung des Augenpigmentes. Albrecht von Graef Arch Ophthalmol 1910;76509- 546
Link to Article
Maumenee  AE Retinal lesions in lupus erythematosus. Am J Ophthalmol 1940;23971- 981
Rieger  H Beiträge zur Kenntniss seltener Missbildungen der Iris, II: der Hypoplasie des Irisvorderblattes mit Verlagerung und Entrundungen der Pupille. Albrecht von Graef Arch Ophthalmol 1935;133602- 635
PubMed
Link to Article
Sorsby  AHaythorne  JReed  H Further experience with amniotic membrane grafts in caustic burns of the eye. Br J Ophthalmol 1947;31409- 418
PubMed
Link to Article
Lavery  FS Lime burns of conjunctiva and cornea treated with amnioplastic grafts. Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K 1946;66668
Redner  S Citation statistics from 110 years of Physical Review. Phys Today 2005;49- 54
PubMed
Lange  LL Sleeping beauties in psychology: comparisons of “hits” and “missed signals” in psychological journals. Hist Psychol 2005;8 (2) 194- 217
PubMed Link to Article
Albert  DM Analysis of the Archives' most frequently cited articles. Arch Ophthalmol 1988;106 (4) 465- 470
PubMed Link to Article
Morton  RK Social Theory and Social Structure.  New York Free Press 1968;
von Graefe  A Iridektomie bei Glaucom. Arch Ophthalmol (Berlin) 1856;3456- 555
Link to Article
Horner  JF Über eine Form von Ptosis. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1869;7193- 198
Behçet  H Über rezidivierende, aphthöse, durch ein Virus verursachte Geschwüre am Mund, am Auge und an den Genitalien. Dermatol Wochenschr 1937;1051152- 1157

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