To evaluate whether an association between risk of any of the factors of hypertension, alcohol intake, and cigarette smoking and the risk of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) depended on nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) gene variants.
Two functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (T-786C [rs2070744] and Glu298Asp [rs1799983]) and 2 tagging SNPs (rs7830 and rs3918188) were evaluated in nested case-control studies from the Nurses' Health Study (1980-2002) and the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study (1986-2002). Participants were 40 years of age or older and white, and were followed up biennially. We included 527 incident case patients with POAG and 1539 control participants, matched by cohort, age, and eye examination at the matched case patients' diagnosis dates. Cohort-specific relative risks were estimated using multivariable conditional logistic regression and were pooled using meta-analytic methods.
The association between hypertension and POAG depended on T-786C SNP variants. Compared with TT homozygotes without hypertension, the TT homozygotes with hypertension were at significantly higher risk of POAG (relative risk,1.45 [95% confidence interval, 1.01-2.08]); however, among carriers of the variant (C) allele, hypertension was not associated with POAG (P interaction = .007). Similarly, compared with CC homozygotes with the rs7830 tagging SNP who never smoked, CC homozygotes who were past or current smokers were at significantly higher risk of POAG (relative risk, 1.63 [95% confidence interval, 1.15-2.31]); however, among carriers of the variant allele (A), smoking was not associated with POAG (P interaction = .004). Interactions were not observed with alcohol intake.
The associations between hypertension and cigarette smoking in relation to POAG depended on NOS3 SNPs.