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RAYNAUD'S DISEASE WITH INTERMITTENT SPASM OF THE RETINAL ARTERY AND VEINS:  Follow-Up Report of a Case

W. M. Carpenter, M.D.; E. W. Carpenter, M.D.
Arch Ophthalmol. 1938;19(1):111-113. doi:10.1001/archopht.1938.00850130123014.
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Todd1 in an article published in 1912 suggested that vascular spasms are not always spastic but may be intermittent and are not always fatal to the parts involved.

"According to the present state of our knowledge, angiospasm alone can never lead to gangrene and can only be regarded as a secondary factor in its production."2 This is not in accordance with the usual conception of Raynaud's disease. One would think that spasm of the central artery would lead to death of the retina, because the retina is entirely dependent on the central artery for nourishment. In visualizing the sequence in the pathologic changes of Raynaud's disease one must first settle the question, Is the spasm spastic or intermittent? In reviewing the subject we have concluded that the usual state of affairs is intermittence and that these attacks are not always fatal to the part involved. Sometimes function

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