Three hundred and twenty-six cases of ocular vaccinia and 22 cases of corneal vaccinia were detected by follow-up of patients receiving vaccinia immune globulin. The majority of these patients (70%) were primary vaccinees; over half had onset seven to ten days after vaccination. Nineteen percent acquired vaccinia from other vaccinated people. Fifty-eight percent of all patients were under 4 years of age, and 57% of all patients were female. Underlying conditions predisposing to vaccinia were infrequent. Residua in noncorneal cases were rare (2%); 18% of the corneal cases had residua. No residua were severe.