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Cerebro-ocular Dysplasia-Muscular Dystrophy Syndrome:  Report of Two Cases

Pamela Heggie; Hans E. Grossniklaus, MD; Uros Roessmann, MD; Samuel M. Chou, MD, PhD; Robert P. Cruse, DO
Arch Ophthalmol. 1987;105(4):520-524. doi:10.1001/archopht.1987.01060040090040.
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• Cerebro-ocular dysplasia-muscular dystrophy (COD-MD) syndrome is a rare disorder encompassing a triad of brain, eye, and muscle abnormalities. The principal central nervous system features are cerebral and cerebellar agyria-micropolygyria, cortical disorganization, glial-mesodermal proliferation within the leptomeninges, neuronal heterotopias, hypoplasia of nerve tracts, hydrocephalus, and, occasionally, encephalocele. Ocular abnormalities include microphthalmia, cataract, immature anterior chamber angle, retinal dysplasia with or without retinal detachment, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, optic nerve hypoplasia, and coloboma. Skeletal muscle findings include fiber splitting, variable fiber size, and endomysial fibrosis. Recent evidence has shown that COD-MD syndrome may be identical to the Walker-Warburg (also known as Warburg) syndrome. Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy is similar to the COD-MD and Walker-Warburg syndromes, although the ocular manifestations are less severe. We report the histopathologic findings in two siblings With multiple features of COD-MD syndrome.

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