We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Article |

Sunlight and Age-Related Macular Degeneration The Beaver Dam Eye Study

Karen J. Cruickshanks, PhD; Ronald Klein, MD, MPH; Barbara E. K. Klein, MD, MPH
Arch Ophthalmol. 1993;111(4):514-518. doi:10.1001/archopht.1993.01090040106042.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


• Objective.  —To investigate the relationship of sunlight exposure with age-related maculopathy. This was investigated in the population-based Beaver Dam Eye Study.

Design.  —In this cross-sectional population-based study, questionnaire data about sunlight exposure were obtained. Stereoscopic color fundus photographs were graded to determine the presence of age-related maculopathy.

Participants.  —People aged 43 through 84 years who resided in Beaver Dam, Wis, between 1987 and 1988 were examined between 1988 and 1990.

Results.  —Light exposure was not associated with early age-related maculopathy in women. In men, after adjusting for age, the amount of time spent outdoors in summer was associated with increased retinal pigment (odds ratio [OR], 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 2.04). Wearing eyeglasses was inversely associated with increased retinal pigment (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.97), and the use of hats and sunglasses was inversely associated with soft indistinct drusen (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.98). The amount of leisure time spent outdoors in summer was significantly associated with exudative macular degeneration (OR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.06 to 4.81) and late maculopathy (OR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.12 to 4.25). There were no associations between estimated ambient UV-B exposure and age-related maculopathy.

Conclusions.  —These data suggest that exposure to sunlight may be associated with age-related maculopathy. However, longitudinal studies of these associations are needed.


Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?





Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

0 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.