Uppsala (Sweden) University was founded in 1477. In 1492, Columbus discovered the New World. Recently, I read the article by Dresner and Karesh1 on transconjunctival entropion repair (the Archives arrived late for reasons other than the distance over the Atlantic). Dresner and Karesh described a triple procedure. Two of the components were retractor reinsertion/shortening and horizontal lid shortening; both are supported by previous experience,2 and the latter was probably a necessary prerequisite for the good results. The significance of the orbicularis excision is dubious, but the outcome may have been strengthened by some fibrosis that was created thereby.
In the "Comment" section, Dresner and Karesh refer to other relevant studies, among them, transconjunctival procedures for orbital repair and blepharoplasty. It would have been relevant to cite my study from 1984,3 in which an Old World innovation was presented, namely, transconjunctival retractor shortening to correct entropion. I did