0
We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
ARTICLE |

Smoking Is Also Associated With Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Persons Aged 85 Years and Older: The Rotterdam Study

Caroline C. W. Klaver, MD; Jacqueline J. M. Assink, MD; Johannes R. Vingerling, MD, PhD; Albert Hofman, MD, PhD; Paulus T. V. M. de Jong, MD, PhD, FRCOphth
Arch Ophthalmol. 1997;115(7):945. doi:10.1001/archopht.1997.01100160115033.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

The article by Vingerling et al,1 published in the October 1996 issue of the Archives, describes the association between smoking and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Smoking increased the risk of macular degeneration only in persons aged 55 to 84 years; there was no increased risk for smoking in persons aged 85 years and older. The authors mentioned that the lack of association in this age group was possibly due to competitive risk factors and hypothesized that selective survival and a decreased response among the oldest persons might have influenced the results.

To be consistent with the international classification and grading system of AMD,2 we regraded the fundus transparencies from the Rotterdam Study. In addition, historical data and information from medical records were obtained to exclude other causes of maculopathy. Regrading did not alter the overall and age-specific prevalence of AMD in the Rotterdam Study. However, regrading did affect

Topics

Sign in

Create a free personal account to sign up for alerts, share articles, and more.

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal

First Page Preview

View Large
First page PDF preview

Figures

Tables

References

Correspondence

CME
Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Submit a Comment

Multimedia

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Sign in

Create a free personal account to sign up for alerts, share articles, and more.

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Jobs
brightcove.createExperiences();